Difference between revisions of "Pulmonic regurgitation causes"

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*[[balloon valvuloplasty|Balloon valvuloplasty of the pulmonary valve]]
 
*[[balloon valvuloplasty|Balloon valvuloplasty of the pulmonary valve]]
 +
*[[Behçet disease]]<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>
 
*[[chest trauma|Blunt or penetrating chest trauma]]
 
*[[chest trauma|Blunt or penetrating chest trauma]]
 
*[[Cabergoline]]<ref name="pmid19683643">{{cite journal| author=Bhattacharyya S, Schapira AH, Mikhailidis DP, Davar J| title=Drug-induced fibrotic valvular heart disease. | journal=Lancet | year= 2009 | volume= 374 | issue= 9689 | pages= 577-85 | pmid=19683643 | doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60252-X | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=19683643 }} </ref>
 
*[[Cabergoline]]<ref name="pmid19683643">{{cite journal| author=Bhattacharyya S, Schapira AH, Mikhailidis DP, Davar J| title=Drug-induced fibrotic valvular heart disease. | journal=Lancet | year= 2009 | volume= 374 | issue= 9689 | pages= 577-85 | pmid=19683643 | doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60252-X | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=19683643 }} </ref>
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*[[Myocardial rupture]]
 
*[[Myocardial rupture]]
 
*[[Myocarditis]]
 
*[[Myocarditis]]
 +
*[[Myxomatous degeneration]] of the [[pulmonary valve]]
 
*[[Pacemaker syndrome]]
 
*[[Pacemaker syndrome]]
 
*[[Paroxetine]]
 
*[[Paroxetine]]
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*[[cardiac tumors|Right ventricular tumors]]
 
*[[cardiac tumors|Right ventricular tumors]]
 
*[[Sarcoidosis]]
 
*[[Sarcoidosis]]
 +
*[[SLE]]<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>
 +
*[[Tertiary syphilis]]<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>
 
*[[Blalock-Taussig shunt|Tetralogy of Fallot repair]]<ref name="pmid15028368">{{cite journal| author=Geva T, Sandweiss BM, Gauvreau K, Lock JE, Powell AJ| title=Factors associated with impaired clinical status in long-term survivors of tetralogy of Fallot repair evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. | journal=J Am Coll Cardiol | year= 2004 | volume= 43 | issue= 6 | pages= 1068-74 | pmid=15028368 | doi=10.1016/j.jacc.2003.10.045 | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15028368 }} </ref>
 
*[[Blalock-Taussig shunt|Tetralogy of Fallot repair]]<ref name="pmid15028368">{{cite journal| author=Geva T, Sandweiss BM, Gauvreau K, Lock JE, Powell AJ| title=Factors associated with impaired clinical status in long-term survivors of tetralogy of Fallot repair evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. | journal=J Am Coll Cardiol | year= 2004 | volume= 43 | issue= 6 | pages= 1068-74 | pmid=15028368 | doi=10.1016/j.jacc.2003.10.045 | pmc= | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15028368 }} </ref>
 
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Revision as of 16:33, 2 August 2020

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [2] Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[3], Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S[4], Javaria Anwer M.D.[5]

Overview

Pulmonic regurgitation may be normal (physiologic) and occasionally a murmur can be heard among thin subjects. Life-threatening cause of PR include chest trauma. The most common causes of pulmonary regurgitation are following the repair of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis. PR is also common among patients with pulmonary hypertension (PAH). Rheumatic heart disease is also an uncommon cause and is more commonly observed in developing countries. The primary causes of PR include an intrinsic pathology in the pulmonic valve and secondary causes include extrinsic causes. The causes of pulmonic regurgitation may also be reckoned on the basis of the organ systems involved.

Causes

Life-threatening causes

  • Life-threatening causes of PR include chest trauma.

Common causes

Less common causes

Causes by etiology

  • PR may be physiologic or pathologic. Pathologic causes may be divided among primary and secondary. Isolated PR is very rare and is most commonly associated with other congenital heart diseases.[5] The following flow chart demonstrates the causes of PR based upon the etiology.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Causes of Pulmonic regurgitation (PR)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Physiologic[6][7][8]
Mostly found among healthy young people on doppler echo
 
 
 
 
Primary[9]
 
 
 
Secondary[10][9][4][11]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pulmonary artery dilation
•Right ventricular outlet aneurysm
Behçet disease
Tertiary syphilis
 
 
 
Pulmonary hypertension (PAH)
SLE (via PAH
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acquired
 
 
 
Congenital[10]
•Quadricuspid or Bicuspid valves
Valvular hypoplasia
pulmonary valve prolapse
Absent pulmonary valve
•Isolated congenital PR
Ebstein’s anomaly (acute PR)
Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trauma (usually life-threatening)[9]
Blunt or penetrating chest trauma
Myocardial rupture
 
Infectious/Immune-related[10]
Infective endocarditis (can be life-threatening)
Rheumatic heart disease
 
 
 
 
Tumor/Genetic causes[10][12]
Carconoid heart disease
Myxomatous degeneration of the pulmonary valve
 
Iatrogenic[10][13][14][15]
•Post pulmonary valve stenosis repair
• Post TOF transannular patch repair
•Post Blalock-Taussig shunt TOF repair
•Post balloon or surgical valvulotomy or valvuloplasty for pulmonary stenosis (acute PR)
•Perforation of valvular pulmonary atresia (acute PR)
Medications acting via serotonergic pathways such as ergot derivatives (Pergolide)[16][17]
 


Causes by Organ System[9][12][13][14][15][18][4]


Cardiovascular Congenital heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, Eisenmenger syndrome, endocarditis, infective endocarditis, myocardial rupture, patent ductus arteriosus, rheumatic heart disease, right ventricular tumors, myxomatous degeneration of the pulmonary valve
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Cabergoline, ergotamine, fenfluramine, fluoxetine, methysergide, paroxetine, pergolide, phentermine, sertraline
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Carcinoid syndrome
Environmental Pneumoconiosis
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Mucopolysaccharidoses, patent ductus arteriosus, polycystic kidney disease, X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Balloon valvuloplasty of the pulmonary valve, cardiac catheterization, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart surgery, pacemaker syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention, prosthetic valve dysfunction, Tetralogy of Fallot repair
Infectious Disease Infective endocarditis, myocarditis, rheumatic fever, tertiary syphilis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Gouty valvular tophi
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Carcinoid syndrome
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Cor pulmonale, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, pneumoconiosis, pulmonary hypertension, sarcoidosis
Renal/Electrolyte End stage renal disease, polycystic kidney disease
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Rheumatic fever, sarcoidosis, Behçet disease
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Blunt or penetrating chest trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous SLE


Causes in alphabetical order

References

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