Difference between revisions of "Pulmonic regurgitation causes"

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[[Image:Home_logo1.png|right|250px|link=http://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/Pulmonic_regurgitation]]
 
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{{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{M.P}} {{AKI}}, {{AA}}
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{{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{M.P}} {{AKI}}, {{AA}}, {{JA}}
  
 
==Overview==
 
==Overview==
A small percentage of [[pulmonic regurgitation]] is normal and occasionally a murmur can be heard in thin subjects. The most common causes of [[pulmonary regurgitation]] are following repair of [[tetralogy of Fallot]] and [[pulmonary stenosis]]. In addition, to the physiologic [[pulmonic regurgitation]], the primary causes include an intrinsic pathology in the [[pulmonic valve]]. Secondary causes include extrinsic causes. The causes of [[pulmonic regurgitation]] can also be reckoned on the basis of the organ systems involved.
+
[[Pulmonic regurgitation]] may be normal (physiologic) and occasionally a [[murmur]] can be heard among thin subjects. Life-threatening cause of [[PR]] include chest [[trauma]]. The most common causes of [[pulmonary regurgitation]] are following the repair of [[tetralogy of Fallot]] and [[pulmonary stenosis]]. [[PR]] is also common among [[patients]] with [[pulmonary hypertension]] (PAH). [[Rheumatic heart disease]] is also an uncommon cause and is more commonly observed in developing countries. The primary causes of [[PR]] include an intrinsic [[pathology]] in the [[pulmonic valve]] and secondary causes include extrinsic causes. The causes of [[pulmonic regurgitation]] may also be reckoned on the basis of the organ systems involved.
  
 
==Causes==
 
==Causes==
 
===Life-threatening causes===
 
===Life-threatening causes===
*Life-threatening causes of [[PR]] include [[trauma]] as described below.
+
*Life-threatening causes of [[PR]] include chest [[trauma]].
 
===Common causes===
 
===Common causes===
 
*Secondary [[PR]] is more common than primary [[PR]].<ref>{{cite book | last = Fauci | first = Anthony | title = Harrison's principles of internal medicine | publisher = McGraw-Hill Medical | location = New York | year = 2008 | isbn = 978-0071466332 }}</ref>
 
*Secondary [[PR]] is more common than primary [[PR]].<ref>{{cite book | last = Fauci | first = Anthony | title = Harrison's principles of internal medicine | publisher = McGraw-Hill Medical | location = New York | year = 2008 | isbn = 978-0071466332 }}</ref>
*[[PR|pulmonic regirgitation]] (PR) is most common after [[TOF]] repair.<ref name="WarnesWilliams2008">{{cite journal|last1=Warnes|first1=Carole A.|last2=Williams|first2=Roberta G.|last3=Bashore|first3=Thomas M.|last4=Child|first4=John S.|last5=Connolly|first5=Heidi M.|last6=Dearani|first6=Joseph A.|last7=del Nido|first7=Pedro|last8=Fasules|first8=James W.|last9=Graham|first9=Thomas P.|last10=Hijazi|first10=Ziyad M.|last11=Hunt|first11=Sharon A.|last12=King|first12=Mary Etta|last13=Landzberg|first13=Michael J.|last14=Miner|first14=Pamela D.|last15=Radford|first15=Martha J.|last16=Walsh|first16=Edward P.|last17=Webb|first17=Gary D.|title=ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary|journal=Circulation|volume=118|issue=23|year=2008|pages=2395–2451|issn=0009-7322|doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811}}</ref><ref name="WeinbergMcElhinney2014">{{cite journal|last1=Weinberg|first1=Catherine R.|last2=McElhinney|first2=Doff B.|title=Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Tetralogy of Fallot|journal=Circulation|volume=130|issue=9|year=2014|pages=795–798|issn=0009-7322|doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.005551}}</ref>
+
*[[PR|pulmonic regurgitation]] (PR) is most common after [[TOF]] or [[pulmonary stenosis]] repair .<ref name="WarnesWilliams2008">{{cite journal|last1=Warnes|first1=Carole A.|last2=Williams|first2=Roberta G.|last3=Bashore|first3=Thomas M.|last4=Child|first4=John S.|last5=Connolly|first5=Heidi M.|last6=Dearani|first6=Joseph A.|last7=del Nido|first7=Pedro|last8=Fasules|first8=James W.|last9=Graham|first9=Thomas P.|last10=Hijazi|first10=Ziyad M.|last11=Hunt|first11=Sharon A.|last12=King|first12=Mary Etta|last13=Landzberg|first13=Michael J.|last14=Miner|first14=Pamela D.|last15=Radford|first15=Martha J.|last16=Walsh|first16=Edward P.|last17=Webb|first17=Gary D.|title=ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary|journal=Circulation|volume=118|issue=23|year=2008|pages=2395–2451|issn=0009-7322|doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811}}</ref><ref name="WeinbergMcElhinney2014">{{cite journal|last1=Weinberg|first1=Catherine R.|last2=McElhinney|first2=Doff B.|title=Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Tetralogy of Fallot|journal=Circulation|volume=130|issue=9|year=2014|pages=795–798|issn=0009-7322|doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.005551}}</ref>
*[[PR]] is also common in [[patients]] with [[pulmonary hypertension]] (PAH).<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>  
+
*[[PR]] is also common among [[patients]] with [[pulmonary hypertension]] (PAH).<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>
 +
 
 
===Less common causes===
 
===Less common causes===
*[[Carcinoid syndrome|Carconoid heart disease]], [[infective endocarditis]], [[tertiary syphilis]], and [[connective tissue disorders]] are uncommon causes of [[PR]].<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>
+
*[[Carcinoid syndrome|Carcinoid heart disease]], [[infective endocarditis]], [[tertiary syphilis]], and [[connective tissue disorders]] are uncommon causes of [[PR]].<ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref>
 
*[[Rheumatic heart disease]] is also an uncommon cause and is more commonly observed in developing countries.
 
*[[Rheumatic heart disease]] is also an uncommon cause and is more commonly observed in developing countries.
 
===Causes by etiology===
 
===Causes by etiology===
*[[PR]] may be physiologic or pathologic. Pathologic causes may be divided among primary and secondary. Isolated PR is very rare and is most commonly associated with other [[congenital heart diseases]].<ref name="pmid17569817">{{cite journal| author=Chaturvedi RR, Redington AN| title=Pulmonary regurgitation in congenital heart disease. | journal=Heart | year= 2007 | volume= 93 | issue= 7 | pages= 880-9 | pmid=17569817 | doi=10.1136/hrt.2005.075234 | pmc=1994453 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=17569817  }} </ref>  The following flow chart demonstrates the causes of [[PR]] based upon the etiology.<br>
+
*[[PR]] may be physiologic or pathologic. Pathologic causes may be divided among primary and secondary. Isolated PR is very rare and is most commonly associated with other [[congenital heart diseases]].<ref name="pmid17569817">{{cite journal| author=Chaturvedi RR, Redington AN| title=Pulmonary regurgitation in congenital heart disease. | journal=Heart | year= 2007 | volume= 93 | issue= 7 | pages= 880-9 | pmid=17569817 | doi=10.1136/hrt.2005.075234 | pmc=1994453 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=17569817  }} </ref>  The following flow chart demonstrates the causes of [[PR]] based upon the [[etiology]].<br>
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
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{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | A01 | | | | | |A01='''Causes of [[Pulmonic regurgitation]]''' (PR)}}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | A01 | | | | | |A01='''Causes of [[Pulmonic regurgitation]]''' (PR)}}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|-|-|.| }}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|-|-|.| }}
{{familytree | | | | | | B01 | | | | | B02 | | | | B03 |B01='''Physiologic'''<ref name="pmid8304596">{{cite journal |vauthors=Macchi C, Orlandini SZ, Orlandini GE |title=An anatomical study of the healthy human heart by echocardiography with special reference to physiological valvular regurgitation |journal=Ann. Anat. |volume=176 |issue=1 |pages=81–6 |date=January 1994 |pmid=8304596 |doi=10.1016/s0940-9602(11)80421-8 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid2637102">{{cite journal |vauthors=Král J, Hradec J, Petrásek J |title=Valvular regurgitations in healthy young people |journal=Cor Vasa |volume=31 |issue=6 |pages=485–94 |date=1989 |pmid=2637102 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid1760180">{{cite journal |vauthors=Maciel BC, Simpson IA, Valdes-Cruz LM, Recusani F, Hoit B, Dalton N, Weintraub R, Sahn DJ |title=Color flow Doppler mapping studies of "physiologic" pulmonary and tricuspid regurgitation: evidence for true regurgitation as opposed to a valve closing volume |journal=J Am Soc Echocardiogr |volume=4 |issue=6 |pages=589–97 |date=1991 |pmid=1760180 |doi=10.1016/s0894-7317(14)80218-6 |url=}}</ref><br>Mostly found in healthy young people on [[Doppler echocardiography|doppler echo]]|B02='''Primary'''<ref name="pmid18997168">{{cite journal| author=Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA et al.| title=ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease). | journal=Circulation | year= 2008 | volume= 118 | issue= 23 | pages= 2395-451 | pmid=18997168 | doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18997168  }} </ref>|B03='''Secondary'''<ref name="LancellottiTribouilloy2010">{{cite journal|last1=Lancellotti|first1=P.|last2=Tribouilloy|first2=C.|last3=Hagendorff|first3=A.|last4=Moura|first4=L.|last5=Popescu|first5=B. A.|last6=Agricola|first6=E.|last7=Monin|first7=J. L.|last8=Pierard|first8=L. A.|last9=Badano|first9=L.|last10=Zamorano|first10=J. L.|last11=Sicari|first11=R.|last12=Vahanian|first12=A.|last13=Roelandt|first13=J. R. T. C.|title=European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for the assessment of valvular regurgitation. Part 1: aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease)|journal=European Journal of Echocardiography|volume=11|issue=3|year=2010|pages=223–244|issn=1525-2167|doi=10.1093/ejechocard/jeq030}}</ref><ref name="pmid18997168">{{cite journal| author=Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA et al.| title=ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease). | journal=Circulation | year= 2008 | volume= 118 | issue= 23 | pages= 2395-451 | pmid=18997168 | doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18997168  }} </ref><ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref><ref name="pmid28053559">{{cite journal |vauthors=Tselios K, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB |title=Systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary arterial hypertension: links, risks, and management strategies |journal=Open Access Rheumatol |volume=9 |issue= |pages=1–9 |date=2017 |pmid=28053559 |pmc=5191623 |doi=10.2147/OARRR.S123549 |url=}}</ref> }}
+
{{familytree | | | | | | B01 | | | | | B02 | | | | B03 |B01='''Physiologic'''<ref name="pmid8304596">{{cite journal |vauthors=Macchi C, Orlandini SZ, Orlandini GE |title=An anatomical study of the healthy human heart by echocardiography with special reference to physiological valvular regurgitation |journal=Ann. Anat. |volume=176 |issue=1 |pages=81–6 |date=January 1994 |pmid=8304596 |doi=10.1016/s0940-9602(11)80421-8 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid2637102">{{cite journal |vauthors=Král J, Hradec J, Petrásek J |title=Valvular regurgitations in healthy young people |journal=Cor Vasa |volume=31 |issue=6 |pages=485–94 |date=1989 |pmid=2637102 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid1760180">{{cite journal |vauthors=Maciel BC, Simpson IA, Valdes-Cruz LM, Recusani F, Hoit B, Dalton N, Weintraub R, Sahn DJ |title=Color flow Doppler mapping studies of "physiologic" pulmonary and tricuspid regurgitation: evidence for true regurgitation as opposed to a valve closing volume |journal=J Am Soc Echocardiogr |volume=4 |issue=6 |pages=589–97 |date=1991 |pmid=1760180 |doi=10.1016/s0894-7317(14)80218-6 |url=}}</ref><br>Mostly found among healthy young people on [[Doppler echocardiography|doppler echo]]|B02='''Primary'''<ref name="pmid18997168">{{cite journal| author=Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA et al.| title=ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease). | journal=Circulation | year= 2008 | volume= 118 | issue= 23 | pages= 2395-451 | pmid=18997168 | doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18997168  }} </ref>|B03='''Secondary'''<ref name="LancellottiTribouilloy2010">{{cite journal|last1=Lancellotti|first1=P.|last2=Tribouilloy|first2=C.|last3=Hagendorff|first3=A.|last4=Moura|first4=L.|last5=Popescu|first5=B. A.|last6=Agricola|first6=E.|last7=Monin|first7=J. L.|last8=Pierard|first8=L. A.|last9=Badano|first9=L.|last10=Zamorano|first10=J. L.|last11=Sicari|first11=R.|last12=Vahanian|first12=A.|last13=Roelandt|first13=J. R. T. C.|title=European Association of Echocardiography recommendations for the assessment of valvular regurgitation. Part 1: aortic and pulmonary regurgitation (native valve disease)|journal=European Journal of Echocardiography|volume=11|issue=3|year=2010|pages=223–244|issn=1525-2167|doi=10.1093/ejechocard/jeq030}}</ref><ref name="pmid18997168">{{cite journal| author=Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA et al.| title=ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease). | journal=Circulation | year= 2008 | volume= 118 | issue= 23 | pages= 2395-451 | pmid=18997168 | doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18997168  }} </ref><ref name="SaremiGera2014">{{cite journal|last1=Saremi|first1=Farhood|last2=Gera|first2=Atul|last3=Yen Ho|first3=S.|last4=Hijazi|first4=Ziyad M.|last5=Sánchez-Quintana|first5=Damián|title=CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve|journal=RadioGraphics|volume=34|issue=1|year=2014|pages=51–71|issn=0271-5333|doi=10.1148/rg.341135026}}</ref><ref name="pmid28053559">{{cite journal |vauthors=Tselios K, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB |title=Systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary arterial hypertension: links, risks, and management strategies |journal=Open Access Rheumatol |volume=9 |issue= |pages=1–9 |date=2017 |pmid=28053559 |pmc=5191623 |doi=10.2147/OARRR.S123549 |url=}}</ref> }}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | |!| }}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | |!| }}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | |,|-|-|^|-|-|.|}}
 
{{familytree | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | |,|-|-|^|-|-|.|}}

Revision as of 12:49, 2 August 2020

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [2] Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[3], Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S[4], Javaria Anwer M.D.[5]

Overview

Pulmonic regurgitation may be normal (physiologic) and occasionally a murmur can be heard among thin subjects. Life-threatening cause of PR include chest trauma. The most common causes of pulmonary regurgitation are following the repair of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary stenosis. PR is also common among patients with pulmonary hypertension (PAH). Rheumatic heart disease is also an uncommon cause and is more commonly observed in developing countries. The primary causes of PR include an intrinsic pathology in the pulmonic valve and secondary causes include extrinsic causes. The causes of pulmonic regurgitation may also be reckoned on the basis of the organ systems involved.

Causes

Life-threatening causes

  • Life-threatening causes of PR include chest trauma.

Common causes

Less common causes

Causes by etiology

  • PR may be physiologic or pathologic. Pathologic causes may be divided among primary and secondary. Isolated PR is very rare and is most commonly associated with other congenital heart diseases.[5] The following flow chart demonstrates the causes of PR based upon the etiology.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Causes of Pulmonic regurgitation (PR)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Physiologic[6][7][8]
Mostly found among healthy young people on doppler echo
 
 
 
 
Primary[9]
 
 
 
Secondary[10][9][4][11]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pulmonary artery dilation
•Right ventricular outlet aneurysm
Behçet disease
Tertiary syphilis
 
 
 
Pulmonary hypertension (PAH)
SLE (via PAH
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acquired
 
 
 
Congenital[10]
•Quadricuspid or Bicuspid valves
Valvular hypoplasia
pulmonary valve prolapse
Absent pulmonary valve
•Isolated congenital PR
Ebstein’s anomaly (acute PR)
Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Trauma (usually life-threatening)[9]
Blunt or penetrating chest trauma
Myocardial rupture
 
Infectious/Immune-related[10]
Infective endocarditis (can be life-threatening)
Rheumatic heart disease
 
 
 
 
Tumor/Genetic causes[10][12]
Carconoid heart disease
Myxomatous degeneration of the pulmonary valve
 
Iatrogenic[10][13][14][15]
•Post pulmonary valve stenosis repair
• Post TOF transannular patch repair
•Post Blalock-Taussig shunt TOF repair
•Post balloon or surgical valvulotomy or valvuloplasty for pulmonary stenosis (acute PR)
•Perforation of valvular pulmonary atresia (acute PR)
Medications acting via serotonergic pathways such as ergot derivatives (Pergolide)[16][17]
 


Causes by Organ System[9][12][13][14][15][18][4]


Cardiovascular Congenital heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, Eisenmenger syndrome, endocarditis, infective endocarditis, myocardial rupture, patent ductus arteriosus, rheumatic heart disease, right ventricular tumors, myxomatous degeneration of the pulmonary valve
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Cabergoline, ergotamine, fenfluramine, fluoxetine, methysergide, paroxetine, pergolide, phentermine, sertraline
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Carcinoid syndrome
Environmental Pneumoconiosis
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Mucopolysaccharidoses, patent ductus arteriosus, polycystic kidney disease, X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Balloon valvuloplasty of the pulmonary valve, cardiac catheterization, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart surgery, pacemaker syndrome, percutaneous coronary intervention, prosthetic valve dysfunction, Tetralogy of Fallot repair
Infectious Disease Infective endocarditis, myocarditis, rheumatic fever, tertiary syphilis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Gouty valvular tophi
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Carcinoid syndrome
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Cor pulmonale, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, pneumoconiosis, pulmonary hypertension, sarcoidosis
Renal/Electrolyte End stage renal disease, polycystic kidney disease
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Rheumatic fever, sarcoidosis, Behçet disease
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Blunt or penetrating chest trauma
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous SLE


Causes in alphabetical order

References

  1. Fauci, Anthony (2008). Harrison's principles of internal medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0071466332.
  2. Warnes, Carole A.; Williams, Roberta G.; Bashore, Thomas M.; Child, John S.; Connolly, Heidi M.; Dearani, Joseph A.; del Nido, Pedro; Fasules, James W.; Graham, Thomas P.; Hijazi, Ziyad M.; Hunt, Sharon A.; King, Mary Etta; Landzberg, Michael J.; Miner, Pamela D.; Radford, Martha J.; Walsh, Edward P.; Webb, Gary D. (2008). "ACC/AHA 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Executive Summary". Circulation. 118 (23): 2395–2451. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190811. ISSN 0009-7322.
  3. Weinberg, Catherine R.; McElhinney, Doff B. (2014). "Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Tetralogy of Fallot". Circulation. 130 (9): 795–798. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.005551. ISSN 0009-7322.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Saremi, Farhood; Gera, Atul; Yen Ho, S.; Hijazi, Ziyad M.; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián (2014). "CT and MR Imaging of the Pulmonary Valve". RadioGraphics. 34 (1): 51–71. doi:10.1148/rg.341135026. ISSN 0271-5333.
  5. Chaturvedi RR, Redington AN (2007). "Pulmonary regurgitation in congenital heart disease". Heart. 93 (7): 880–9. doi:10.1136/hrt.2005.075234. PMC 1994453. PMID 17569817.
  6. Macchi C, Orlandini SZ, Orlandini GE (January 1994). "An anatomical study of the healthy human heart by echocardiography with special reference to physiological valvular regurgitation". Ann. Anat. 176 (1): 81–6. doi:10.1016/s0940-9602(11)80421-8. PMID 8304596.
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