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==Overview==
 
==Overview==

Latest revision as of 19:59, 4 December 2019

Pericarditis Microchapters

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Homa Najafi, M.D.[2]

Overview

Pericarditis may be classified according to duration of the disease and recurrence into acute, Incessant, recurrent and chronic. Moreover, pericarditis can be classified based on the etiology in two groups of infectious and non-infectious causes.

Classification



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pericarditis classification based on duration
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acute: New-onset disease which lasts < 4-6 weeks
 
 
 
Incessant: Pericarditis lasting for >4–6 weeks but <3 months without remission
 
 
 
Recurrent: Recurrence after the first episode of acute pericarditis 4–6 weeks or longer interval
 
 
 
Chronic: Pericarditis lasts for >3 months
 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pericarditis classification based on etiology
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Infectious causes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-infectious causes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Viral:

Enteroviruses(coxsackieviruses, echoviruses)

Herpes viruses(EBV, CMV, HHV-6)

Adenoviruses

Parvovirus B19
 
Bacterial:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Coxiella burnetii

Borrelia burgdorferi
 
Fungal:

Histoplasma species

Aspergillus species

Blastomyces species

Candida species
 
Parasitic:

Echinococcus species

Toxoplasma species
 
Autoimmune:

Systemic autoimmune and auto-inflammatory diseases

Systemic vasculitides

Sarcoidosis

Familial Mediterranean fever

IBD

Still disease
 
 
Neoplastic:

Primary tumours (pericardial mesothelioma)

secondary metastatic tumors( lung and breast cancer, lymphoma)
 
Metabolic:

Uraemia

Myxoedema

Anorexia nervosa
 
Traumatic and Iatrogenic
 
Drug-related
 
Others:

Amyloidosis

Aortic dissection

Pulmonary arterial

Hypertension

Chronic heart failure

Congenital absence of the pericardium

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Imazio, Massimo (2012). "Contemporary management of pericardial diseases". Current Opinion in Cardiology. 27 (3): 308–317. doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e3283524fbe. ISSN 0268-4705.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Imazio, Massimo; Spodick, David H.; Brucato, Antonio; Trinchero, Rita; Adler, Yehuda (2010). "Controversial Issues in the Management of Pericardial Diseases". Circulation. 121 (7): 916–928. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.844753. ISSN 0009-7322.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Imazio, Massimo; Brucato, Antonio; DeRosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Lestuzzi, Chiara; Bombana, Enrico; Scipione, Federica; Leuzzi, Stefano; Cecchi, Enrico; Trinchero, Rita; Adler, Yehuda (2009). "Aetiological diagnosis in acute and recurrent pericarditis: when and how". Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10 (3): 217–230. doi:10.2459/JCM.0b013e328322f9b1. ISSN 1558-2027.
  4. Imazio, Massimo; Belli, Riccardo; Brucato, Antonio; Cemin, Roberto; Ferrua, Stefania; Beqaraj, Federico; Demarie, Daniela; Ferro, Silvia; Forno, Davide; Maestroni, Silvia; Cumetti, Davide; Varbella, Ferdinando; Trinchero, Rita; Spodick, David H; Adler, Yehuda (2014). "Efficacy and safety of colchicine for treatment of multiple recurrences of pericarditis (CORP-2): a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial". The Lancet. 383 (9936): 2232–2237. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62709-9. ISSN 0140-6736.
  5. Sliwa, Karen; Mocumbi, Ana Olga (2009). "Forgotten cardiovascular diseases in Africa". Clinical Research in Cardiology. 99 (2): 65–74. doi:10.1007/s00392-009-0094-1. ISSN 1861-0684.

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