Difference between revisions of "Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound"

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(Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography)
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Latest revision as of 20:52, 14 February 2020

Patent Foramen Ovale Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Patent Foramen Ovale from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

PFO and Stroke


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings



Echocardiography and Ultrasound



Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy



Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound

CDC on Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound

Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound in the news

Blogs on Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound

Directions to Hospitals Treating Patent foramen ovale

Risk calculators and risk factors for Patent foramen ovale echocardiography and ultrasound

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ifeoma Odukwe, M.D. [2]


Tranesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale although transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial ultradound can also be used. The diagnostic process requires injecting a saline contrast medium into a peripheral vein while the patient performs the valsalva maneuver. Appearance of micro-bubbles are seen across the interatrial septum into the left atrium. The size of the shunt is determined by the number of micro-bubbles that pass through the interatrial septum within three cardiac cycles. Further investigation is not required after a negative transthoracic echocardiography or transcranial ultrasound except there is a high suspicion for a right-to-left shunt or the images are inadequate.


Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)

Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE)

Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Falanga G, Carerj S, Oreto G, Khandheria BK, Zito C (2014). "How to Understand Patent Foramen Ovale Clinical Significance: Part I." J Cardiovasc Echogr. 24 (4): 114–121. doi:10.4103/2211-4122.147202. PMC 5353567. PMID 28465918.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Pinto FJ (2005). "When and how to diagnose patent foramen ovale". Heart. 91 (4): 438–40. doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.052233. PMC 1768819. PMID 15772190.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kutty, Shelby; Sengupta, Partho P.; Khandheria, Bijoy K. (2012). "Patent Foramen Ovale". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 59 (19): 1665–1671. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.09.085. ISSN 0735-1097.
  4. Mas, Jean-Louis; Arquizan, Caroline; Lamy, Catherine; Zuber, Mathieu; Cabanes, Laure; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Coste, Joël (2001). "Recurrent Cerebrovascular Events Associated with Patent Foramen Ovale, Atrial Septal Aneurysm, or Both". New England Journal of Medicine. 345 (24): 1740–1746. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011503. ISSN 0028-4793.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Yuan, Kristy; Kasner, Scott Eric (2018). "Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke: diagnosis and updates in secondary stroke prevention". Stroke and Vascular Neurology. 3 (2): 84–91. doi:10.1136/svn-2018-000173. ISSN 2059-8688.
  6. Pearson AC, Labovitz AJ, Tatineni S, Gomez CR (1991). "Superiority of transesophageal echocardiography in detecting cardiac source of embolism in patients with cerebral ischemia of uncertain etiology". J Am Coll Cardiol. 17 (1): 66–72. doi:10.1016/0735-1097(91)90705-e. PMID 1987242.
  7. Mojadidi MK, Winoker JS, Roberts SC, Msaouel P, Zaman MO, Gevorgyan R; et al. (2014). "Accuracy of conventional transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis of intracardiac right-to-left shunt: a meta-analysis of prospective studies". Echocardiography. 31 (9): 1036–48. doi:10.1111/echo.12583. PMID 24689727.
  8. Gafoor, Sameer; Sharma, Rahul; Zhang, Ming; Casterella, Peter; Atianzar, Kimberly (2017). "Update on the Management of Patent Foramen Ovale in 2017: Indication for Closure and Literature Review". US Cardiology Review. 11 (2): 75. doi:10.15420/usc.2017:18:1. ISSN 1758-3896.
  9. Zito C, Dattilo G, Oreto G, Di Bella G, Lamari A, Iudicello R; et al. (2009). "Patent foramen ovale: comparison among diagnostic strategies in cryptogenic stroke and migraine". Echocardiography. 26 (5): 495–503. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8175.2008.00852.x. PMID 19452605.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Mojadidi MK, Roberts SC, Winoker JS, Romero J, Goodman-Meza D, Gevorgyan R; et al. (2014). "Accuracy of transcranial Doppler for the diagnosis of intracardiac right-to-left shunt: a bivariate meta-analysis of prospective studies". JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 7 (3): 236–50. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2013.12.011. PMID 24560213.