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style="background:#Template:Taxobox colour;"|Parechovirus
style="background:#Template:Taxobox colour;" | Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Picornaviridae
Genus: Parechovirus

Human parechovirus
Ljungan virus

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Parechovirus is a viral genus in the family Picornaviridae. The genus is composed of two species: Human parechovirus and Ljungan virus.[1]

Six types of human parechovirus have been identified: human parechovirus 1 (formerly echovirus 22), human parechovirus 2 (formerly echovirus 23), and human parechoviruses 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively.[2][3][4] Human parechoviruses cause mild, gastrointestinal or respiratory illness, but have been implicated in cases of myocarditis and encephalitis. Human parechoviruses are commonly spread and more than 95% of humans are infected by human parechoviruses early in life, within two to five years of age.[5][6]

The Ljungan virus was first isolated from bank voles (Myodes glareolus, formerly Clethrionomys glareolus).[7] Ljungan virus has been proposed as a zoonotic virus, associated with diabetes and intrauterine fetal death in human.[8][9] However, the data regarding these features is currently limited and needs to be confirmed.


  1. "Parechovirus". Retrieved 2007-09-03.
  2. Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Takeda N and Sakae K (2004). "Isolation and identification of a novel human parechovirus". J. Gen. Virol. 85 (2): 391–398. PMID 14769896.
  3. Al-Sunaidi M, Williams CH, Hughes PJ, Schnurr DP, Stanway G (2007). "Analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of RNA structural domains". J. Virol. 81 (2): 1013–21. PMID 17005640.
  4. Watanabe K, Oie M, Higuchi M, Nishikawa M, Fujii M. Isolation and characterization of novel human parechovirus from clinical samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Jun;13(6):889-95.
  5. Stanway G, Joki-Korpela P, Hyypiä T (2000). "Human parechoviruses--biology and clinical significance". Rev. Med. Virol. 10 (1): 57–69. PMID 10654005.
  6. Joki-Korpela P, Hyypiä T (2001). "Parechoviruses, a novel group of human picornaviruses". Ann. Med. 33 (7): 466–71. PMID 11680794.
  7. Niklasson B, Kinnunen L, Hörnfeldt B, Hörling J, Benemar C, Hedlund KO, Matskova L, Hyypiä T, Winberg G (1999). "A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)". Virology. 255 (1): 86–93. PMID 10049824.
  8. Niklasson B, Samsioe A, Papadogiannakis N, Kawecki A, Hörnfeldt B, Saade GR, Klitz W (2007). "Association of zoonotic Ljungan virus with intrauterine fetal deaths". Birth Defects Res. A Clin. Mol. Teratol. 79 (6): 488–93. PMID 17335057.
  9. Niklasson B, Heller KE, Schonecker B, Bildsoe M, Daniels T, Hampe CS, Widlund P, Simonson WT, Schaefer JB, Rutledge E, Bekris L, Lindberg AM, Johansson S, Örtqvist E, Persson B, Lernmark Å (2003). "Development of type 1 diabetes in wild bank voles associated with islet autoantibodies and the novel ljungan virus". Int. J. Exp. Diabesity. Res. 4 (1): 35–44. PMID 12745669.

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