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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Prince Tano Djan, BSc, MBChB [2]

Ascites Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Ascites from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray




Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Paracentesis On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Paracentesis

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Paracentesis

CDC on Paracentesis

Paracentesis in the news

Blogs on Paracentesis

Directions to Hospitals Treating Ascites

Risk calculators and risk factors for Paracentesis



For detailed approaching on performing paracentesis watch the video below; {{#ev:youtube|bdnGQYfQhNA}}

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WikiDoc Resources for Paracentesis


Most recent articles on Paracentesis

Most cited articles on Paracentesis

Review articles on Paracentesis

Articles on Paracentesis in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Paracentesis

Images of Paracentesis

Photos of Paracentesis

Podcasts & MP3s on Paracentesis

Videos on Paracentesis

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Paracentesis

Bandolier on Paracentesis

TRIP on Paracentesis

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Paracentesis at Clinical

Trial results on Paracentesis

Clinical Trials on Paracentesis at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Paracentesis

NICE Guidance on Paracentesis


FDA on Paracentesis

CDC on Paracentesis


Books on Paracentesis


Paracentesis in the news

Be alerted to news on Paracentesis

News trends on Paracentesis


Blogs on Paracentesis


Definitions of Paracentesis

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Paracentesis

Discussion groups on Paracentesis

Patient Handouts on Paracentesis

Directions to Hospitals Treating Paracentesis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Paracentesis

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Paracentesis

Causes & Risk Factors for Paracentesis

Diagnostic studies for Paracentesis

Treatment of Paracentesis

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Paracentesis


Paracentesis en Espanol

Paracentesis en Francais


Paracentesis in the Marketplace

Patents on Paracentesis

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Paracentesis


Paracentesis is a medical procedure used for a number of reasons:

Paracentesis for Ascites

The procedure is often done in doctors office or an out-patient clinic. In an expert's hands, it is very safe, although there is a very small risk of introducing an infection, causing excessive bleeding or perforating a loop of bowel.

During the procedure, patients are asked to lie down and expose their abdomen. After cleaning the side of abdomen with an antiseptic solution, physicians will numb a small area of skin and then insert a fairly large-bore needle (along with a plastic sheath) 2 to 5 cm to reach the peritoneal (ascitic) fluid. The needle is then removed, leaving the plastic sheath behind to allow drainage of the fluid. The fluid can be drained by gravity or by connection to a vacuum bottle. Up to 10 litres of fluid may be drained during the procedure. If fluid drainage is more than 5 litres, patients may receive intravenous serum albumin (25% albumin, 8g/L) to prevent hypotension (low blood pressure).

The procedure generally is not painful; patients require no sedation. As long as they are not very dizzy and maintain their blood pressure after the procedure, they can go home afterwards.

Ascitic fluid analysis

The serum-ascities albumin gradient can help determine the cause of the ascites. The ascitic white blood cell count can help determine if the ascites is infected.


Mild hematologic abnormalities do not increase the risk of bleeding.[1] The risk of bleeding may be increased if:[2]


  1. McVay PA, Toy PT (1991). "Lack of increased bleeding after paracentesis and thoracentesis in patients with mild coagulation abnormalities". Transfusion. 31 (2): 164–71. PMID 1996485.
  2. Ginès P, Cárdenas A, Arroyo V, Rodés J (2004). "Management of cirrhosis and ascites". N. Engl. J. Med. 350 (16): 1646–54. doi:10.1056/NEJMra035021. PMID 15084697.

External links

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