Obligate parasite

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An obligate parasite is a parasitic organism that cannot live independently of its host. For example, a virus is an obligate parasite because it cannot reproduce outside a host cell.


  • Serge, Morand.; et al. (1996). "Body size evolution of oxyurid (Nematoda) parasites: the role of hosts". Oecologia. 107 (2): 274–282.
  • Lenoir, A.; et al. (2001). "Chemical ecology and social parasitism in ants". Annual Review of Entomology. 46: 573–599.
  • Trontti, Kalevi, Aron, Serge and Sundström, Liselotte (2006). "The genetic population structure of the ant Plagiolepis xene - implications for genetic vulnerability of obligate social parasites". Conservation Genetics. 7 (2): 241–250.

See also

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