Nutcracker esophagus surgery

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Nutcracker esophagus Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Nutcracker esophagus from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


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Medical Therapy


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

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Pneumatic dilatation of the esophagus, which is an endoscopic technique where a high-pressure balloon is used to stretch the muscles of the LES, can be performed to improve symptoms.[1][2] In patients who have no response to medical or endoscopic therapy, surgery can be performed. A Heller myotomy involves an incision to disrupt the LES and the myenteric plexus that innervates it. It is used as a final treatment option in patients who do not respond to other therapies.[1][3][4]



  1. 1.0 1.1 Tutuian R, Castell D (2006). "Esophageal motility disorders (distal esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter): modern management". Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 9 (4): 283–94. PMID 16836947.
  2. Kahrilas P (2000). "Esophageal motility disorders: current concepts of pathogenesis and treatment". Can J Gastroenterol. 14 (3): 221–31. PMID 10758419.
  3. Traube M, Tummala V, Baue A, McCallum R (1987). "Surgical myotomy in patients with high-amplitude peristaltic esophageal contractions. Manometric and clinical effects". Dig Dis Sci. 32 (1): 16–21. PMID 3792178.
  4. Richter J, Castell D (1987). "Surgical myotomy for nutcracker esophagus. To be or not to be?". Dig Dis Sci. 32 (1): 95–6. PMID 3792184.

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