Difference between revisions of "Narcolepsy"

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== Epidemiology and Demographics  ==
 
== Epidemiology and Demographics  ==
The [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy in individuals from North America and Europe is estimated to be ~200–500 cases per million individuals.<ref name="pmid8210228">{{cite journal| author=Hublin C, Kaprio J, Partinen M, Koskenvuo M, Heikkila K, Koskimies S | display-authors=etal| title=The prevalence of narcolepsy: an epidemiological study of the Finnish Twin Cohort. | journal=Ann Neurol | year= 1994 | volume= 35 | issue= 6 | pages= 709-16 | pmid=8210228 | doi=10.1002/ana.410350612 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8210228  }} </ref><ref name="pmid11902429">{{cite journal| author=Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ, Pankratz VS| title=The epidemiology of narcolepsy in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based study. | journal=Sleep | year= 2002 | volume= 25 | issue= 2 | pages= 197-202 | pmid=11902429 | doi=10.1093/sleep/25.2.197 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11902429  }} </ref><ref name="pmid12084885">{{cite journal| author=Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, Smirne S, Paiva T| title=Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population. | journal=Neurology | year= 2002 | volume= 58 | issue= 12 | pages= 1826-33 | pmid=12084885 | doi=10.1212/wnl.58.12.1826 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=12084885  }} </ref> The highest [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy occurs in Japanese [[population]] (1,600 cases per million individuals), while the lowest [[prevalence]] occurs in Arabic and Jewish [[Population|populations]] (2–40 cases per million individuals).<ref name="pmid2905117">{{cite journal| author=Juji T, Matsuki K, Tokunaga K, Naohara T, Honda Y| title=Narcolepsy and HLA in the Japanese. | journal=Ann N Y Acad Sci | year= 1988 | volume= 540 | issue=  | pages= 106-14 | pmid=2905117 | doi=10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb27056.x | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=2905117  }} </ref><ref name="pmid2896649">{{cite journal| author=Wilner A, Steinman L, Lavie P, Peled R, Friedmann A, Brautbar C| title=Narcolepsy-cataplexy in Israeli Jews is associated exclusively with the HLA DR2 haplotype. A study at the serological and genomic level. | journal=Hum Immunol | year= 1988 | volume= 21 | issue= 1 | pages= 15-22 | pmid=2896649 | doi=10.1016/0198-8859(88)90077-8 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=2896649  }} </ref><ref name="pmid8272177">{{cite journal| author=al Rajeh S, Bademosi O, Ismail H, Awada A, Dawodu A, al-Freihi H | display-authors=etal| title=A community survey of neurological disorders in Saudi Arabia: the Thugbah study. | journal=Neuroepidemiology | year= 1993 | volume= 12 | issue= 3 | pages= 164-78 | pmid=8272177 | doi=10.1159/000110316 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8272177  }} </ref> The global [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy in the overall [[population]] is 25-50 cases (0.025%-0.05%) per 100,000 individuals.<ref name="DSMV" /><ref name="pmid19456307">{{cite journal| author=Heier MS, Evsiukova T, Wilson J, Abdelnoor M, Hublin C, Ervik S| title=Prevalence of narcolepsy with cataplexy in Norway. | journal=Acta Neurol Scand | year= 2009 | volume= 120 | issue= 4 | pages= 276-80 | pmid=19456307 | doi=10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01166.x | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=19456307  }} </ref><ref name="pmid7701204">{{cite journal| author=Hublin C, Partinen M, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Guilleminault C| title=Epidemiology of narcolepsy. | journal=Sleep | year= 1994 | volume= 17 | issue= 8 Suppl | pages= S7-12 | pmid=7701204 | doi=10.1093/sleep/17.suppl_8.s7 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7701204  }} </ref> Narcolepsy can occur in both [[men]] and [[women]], although in some studies, it affected more [[male]] than [[female]] individuals, which may be due to contribution by [[genetic]] and [[Environmental epidemiology|environmental]] factors. [[Morbidity]] and [[mortality]] [[data]] of middle-aged and [[elderly]] narcoleptics indicating increased [[mortality]] in patients with narcolepsy remains controversial.<ref name="pmid22841027">{{cite journal| author=Jennum P, Ibsen R, Petersen ER, Knudsen S, Kjellberg J| title=Health, social, and economic consequences of narcolepsy: a controlled national study evaluating the societal effect on patients and their partners. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2012 | volume= 13 | issue= 8 | pages= 1086-93 | pmid=22841027 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2012.06.006 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=22841027  }} </ref><ref name="pmid28735916">{{cite journal| author=Jennum P, Thorstensen EW, Pickering L, Ibsen R, Kjellberg J| title=Morbidity and mortality of middle-aged and elderly narcoleptics. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2017 | volume= 36 | issue=  | pages= 23-28 | pmid=28735916 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2017.03.029 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=28735916  }} </ref> Although narcolepsy can occur at any [[age]] (ranging from 3 [[Year|years]] of [[age]] to 80 [[Year|years]]), most cases of narcolepsy usually start in [[adolescence]], with a small second peak of onset occurring at around 35 years of [[age]] (ranging from 30 to 39 [[Year|years]] of [[age]]).<ref name="pmid11739821">{{cite journal| author=Dauvilliers Y, Montplaisir J, Molinari N, Carlander B, Ondze B, Besset A | display-authors=etal| title=Age at onset of narcolepsy in two large populations of patients in France and Quebec. | journal=Neurology | year= 2001 | volume= 57 | issue= 11 | pages= 2029-33 | pmid=11739821 | doi=10.1212/wnl.57.11.2029 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11739821  }} </ref> In some patients (10-15%), narcolepsy may start before the age of 10 years.<ref name="pmid25961600">{{cite journal| author=Rocca FL, Pizza F, Ricci E, Plazzi G| title=Narcolepsy during Childhood: An Update. | journal=Neuropediatrics | year= 2015 | volume= 46 | issue= 3 | pages= 181-98 | pmid=25961600 | doi=10.1055/s-0035-1550152 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=25961600  }} </ref> However, [[childhood]]-onset narcolepsy was systematically studied only in [[rare]] [[Study design|studies]] before the [[current]] [[century]].<ref name="pmid13846589">{{cite journal| author=YOSS RE, DALY DD| title=Narcolepsy in children. | journal=Pediatrics | year= 1960 | volume= 25 | issue=  | pages= 1025-33 | pmid=13846589 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=13846589  }} </ref><ref name="pmid7701194">{{cite journal| author=Challamel MJ, Mazzola ME, Nevsimalova S, Cannard C, Louis J, Revol M| title=Narcolepsy in children. | journal=Sleep | year= 1994 | volume= 17 | issue= 8 Suppl | pages= S17-20 | pmid=7701194 | doi=10.1093/sleep/17.suppl_8.s17 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7701194  }} </ref><ref name="pmid9450782">{{cite journal| author=Guilleminault C, Pelayo R| title=Narcolepsy in prepubertal children. | journal=Ann Neurol | year= 1998 | volume= 43 | issue= 1 | pages= 135-42 | pmid=9450782 | doi=10.1002/ana.410430125 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=9450782  }} </ref> Long [[diagnostic]] delay of 8 to 12 [[Year|years]] from the onset of [[disease]] can underestimate the [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy.<ref name="pmid24780133">{{cite journal| author=Thorpy MJ, Krieger AC| title=Delayed diagnosis of narcolepsy: characterization and impact. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2014 | volume= 15 | issue= 5 | pages= 502-7 | pmid=24780133 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.015 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=24780133  }} </ref><ref name="pmid23496005">{{cite journal| author=Luca G, Haba-Rubio J, Dauvilliers Y, Lammers GJ, Overeem S, Donjacour CE | display-authors=etal| title=Clinical, polysomnographic and genome-wide association analyses of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a European Narcolepsy Network study. | journal=J Sleep Res | year= 2013 | volume= 22 | issue= 5 | pages= 482-95 | pmid=23496005 | doi=10.1111/jsr.12044 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23496005  }} </ref> However, in recent [[Year|years]], more cases (especially in [[children]]) have been [[Diagnose|diagnosed]] sooner after onset, probably due to increasing awareness of the [[disease]].<ref name="pmid18307264">{{cite journal| author=Serra L, Montagna P, Mignot E, Lugaresi E, Plazzi G| title=Cataplexy features in childhood narcolepsy. | journal=Mov Disord | year= 2008 | volume= 23 | issue= 6 | pages= 858-65 | pmid=18307264 | doi=10.1002/mds.21965 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18307264  }} </ref><ref name="pmid24142146">{{cite journal| author=Pizza F, Franceschini C, Peltola H, Vandi S, Finotti E, Ingravallo F | display-authors=etal| title=Clinical and polysomnographic course of childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. | journal=Brain | year= 2013 | volume= 136 | issue= Pt 12 | pages= 3787-95 | pmid=24142146 | doi=10.1093/brain/awt277 | pmc=3859221 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=24142146  }} </ref>
+
The [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy in individuals from North America and Europe is estimated to be ~200–500 cases per million individuals.<ref name="pmid8210228">{{cite journal| author=Hublin C, Kaprio J, Partinen M, Koskenvuo M, Heikkila K, Koskimies S | display-authors=etal| title=The prevalence of narcolepsy: an epidemiological study of the Finnish Twin Cohort. | journal=Ann Neurol | year= 1994 | volume= 35 | issue= 6 | pages= 709-16 | pmid=8210228 | doi=10.1002/ana.410350612 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8210228  }} </ref><ref name="pmid11902429">{{cite journal| author=Silber MH, Krahn LE, Olson EJ, Pankratz VS| title=The epidemiology of narcolepsy in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based study. | journal=Sleep | year= 2002 | volume= 25 | issue= 2 | pages= 197-202 | pmid=11902429 | doi=10.1093/sleep/25.2.197 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11902429  }} </ref><ref name="pmid12084885">{{cite journal| author=Ohayon MM, Priest RG, Zulley J, Smirne S, Paiva T| title=Prevalence of narcolepsy symptomatology and diagnosis in the European general population. | journal=Neurology | year= 2002 | volume= 58 | issue= 12 | pages= 1826-33 | pmid=12084885 | doi=10.1212/wnl.58.12.1826 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=12084885  }} </ref> The highest [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy occurs in Japanese [[population]] (1,600 cases per million individuals), while the lowest [[prevalence]] occurs in Arabic and Jewish [[Population|populations]] (2–40 cases per million individuals).<ref name="pmid2905117">{{cite journal| author=Juji T, Matsuki K, Tokunaga K, Naohara T, Honda Y| title=Narcolepsy and HLA in the Japanese. | journal=Ann N Y Acad Sci | year= 1988 | volume= 540 | issue=  | pages= 106-14 | pmid=2905117 | doi=10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb27056.x | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=2905117  }} </ref><ref name="pmid2896649">{{cite journal| author=Wilner A, Steinman L, Lavie P, Peled R, Friedmann A, Brautbar C| title=Narcolepsy-cataplexy in Israeli Jews is associated exclusively with the HLA DR2 haplotype. A study at the serological and genomic level. | journal=Hum Immunol | year= 1988 | volume= 21 | issue= 1 | pages= 15-22 | pmid=2896649 | doi=10.1016/0198-8859(88)90077-8 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=2896649  }} </ref><ref name="pmid8272177">{{cite journal| author=al Rajeh S, Bademosi O, Ismail H, Awada A, Dawodu A, al-Freihi H | display-authors=etal| title=A community survey of neurological disorders in Saudi Arabia: the Thugbah study. | journal=Neuroepidemiology | year= 1993 | volume= 12 | issue= 3 | pages= 164-78 | pmid=8272177 | doi=10.1159/000110316 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8272177  }} </ref> The global [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy in the overall [[population]] is 25-50 cases (0.025%-0.05%) per 100,000 individuals.<ref name="DSMV" /><ref name="pmid19456307">{{cite journal| author=Heier MS, Evsiukova T, Wilson J, Abdelnoor M, Hublin C, Ervik S| title=Prevalence of narcolepsy with cataplexy in Norway. | journal=Acta Neurol Scand | year= 2009 | volume= 120 | issue= 4 | pages= 276-80 | pmid=19456307 | doi=10.1111/j.1600-0404.2009.01166.x | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=19456307  }} </ref><ref name="pmid7701204">{{cite journal| author=Hublin C, Partinen M, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Guilleminault C| title=Epidemiology of narcolepsy. | journal=Sleep | year= 1994 | volume= 17 | issue= 8 Suppl | pages= S7-12 | pmid=7701204 | doi=10.1093/sleep/17.suppl_8.s7 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7701204  }} </ref> Narcolepsy can occur in both [[men]] and [[women]], although in some studies, it affected more [[male]] than [[female]] individuals, which may be due to contribution by [[genetic]] and [[Environmental epidemiology|environmental]] factors. [[Morbidity]] and [[mortality]] [[data]] of middle-aged and [[elderly]] narcoleptics indicating increased [[mortality]] in patients with narcolepsy remains controversial.<ref name="pmid22841027">{{cite journal| author=Jennum P, Ibsen R, Petersen ER, Knudsen S, Kjellberg J| title=Health, social, and economic consequences of narcolepsy: a controlled national study evaluating the societal effect on patients and their partners. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2012 | volume= 13 | issue= 8 | pages= 1086-93 | pmid=22841027 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2012.06.006 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=22841027  }} </ref><ref name="pmid28735916">{{cite journal| author=Jennum P, Thorstensen EW, Pickering L, Ibsen R, Kjellberg J| title=Morbidity and mortality of middle-aged and elderly narcoleptics. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2017 | volume= 36 | issue=  | pages= 23-28 | pmid=28735916 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2017.03.029 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=28735916  }} </ref> Although narcolepsy can occur at any [[age]] (ranging from 3 [[Year|years]] of [[age]] to 80 [[Year|years]]), most cases of narcolepsy usually start in [[adolescence]], with a small second peak of onset occurring at around 35 years of [[age]] (ranging from 30 to 39 [[Year|years]] of [[age]]).<ref name="pmid11739821">{{cite journal| author=Dauvilliers Y, Montplaisir J, Molinari N, Carlander B, Ondze B, Besset A | display-authors=etal| title=Age at onset of narcolepsy in two large populations of patients in France and Quebec. | journal=Neurology | year= 2001 | volume= 57 | issue= 11 | pages= 2029-33 | pmid=11739821 | doi=10.1212/wnl.57.11.2029 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11739821 }} </ref><ref name="pmid24780133">{{cite journal| author=Thorpy MJ, Krieger AC| title=Delayed diagnosis of narcolepsy: characterization and impact. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2014 | volume= 15 | issue= 5 | pages= 502-7 | pmid=24780133 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.015 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=24780133 }} </ref> In some patients (10-15%), narcolepsy may start before the age of 10 years.<ref name="pmid25961600">{{cite journal| author=Rocca FL, Pizza F, Ricci E, Plazzi G| title=Narcolepsy during Childhood: An Update. | journal=Neuropediatrics | year= 2015 | volume= 46 | issue= 3 | pages= 181-98 | pmid=25961600 | doi=10.1055/s-0035-1550152 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=25961600  }} </ref> However, [[childhood]]-onset narcolepsy was systematically studied only in [[rare]] [[Study design|studies]] before the [[current]] [[century]].<ref name="pmid13846589">{{cite journal| author=YOSS RE, DALY DD| title=Narcolepsy in children. | journal=Pediatrics | year= 1960 | volume= 25 | issue=  | pages= 1025-33 | pmid=13846589 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=13846589  }} </ref><ref name="pmid7701194">{{cite journal| author=Challamel MJ, Mazzola ME, Nevsimalova S, Cannard C, Louis J, Revol M| title=Narcolepsy in children. | journal=Sleep | year= 1994 | volume= 17 | issue= 8 Suppl | pages= S17-20 | pmid=7701194 | doi=10.1093/sleep/17.suppl_8.s17 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7701194  }} </ref><ref name="pmid9450782">{{cite journal| author=Guilleminault C, Pelayo R| title=Narcolepsy in prepubertal children. | journal=Ann Neurol | year= 1998 | volume= 43 | issue= 1 | pages= 135-42 | pmid=9450782 | doi=10.1002/ana.410430125 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=9450782  }} </ref> Long [[diagnostic]] delay of 8 to 12 [[Year|years]] from the onset of [[disease]] can underestimate the [[prevalence]] of narcolepsy.<ref name="pmid24780133">{{cite journal| author=Thorpy MJ, Krieger AC| title=Delayed diagnosis of narcolepsy: characterization and impact. | journal=Sleep Med | year= 2014 | volume= 15 | issue= 5 | pages= 502-7 | pmid=24780133 | doi=10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.015 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=24780133  }} </ref><ref name="pmid23496005">{{cite journal| author=Luca G, Haba-Rubio J, Dauvilliers Y, Lammers GJ, Overeem S, Donjacour CE | display-authors=etal| title=Clinical, polysomnographic and genome-wide association analyses of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a European Narcolepsy Network study. | journal=J Sleep Res | year= 2013 | volume= 22 | issue= 5 | pages= 482-95 | pmid=23496005 | doi=10.1111/jsr.12044 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23496005  }} </ref> However, in recent [[Year|years]], more cases (especially in [[children]]) have been [[Diagnose|diagnosed]] sooner after onset, probably due to increasing awareness of the [[disease]].<ref name="pmid18307264">{{cite journal| author=Serra L, Montagna P, Mignot E, Lugaresi E, Plazzi G| title=Cataplexy features in childhood narcolepsy. | journal=Mov Disord | year= 2008 | volume= 23 | issue= 6 | pages= 858-65 | pmid=18307264 | doi=10.1002/mds.21965 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=18307264  }} </ref><ref name="pmid24142146">{{cite journal| author=Pizza F, Franceschini C, Peltola H, Vandi S, Finotti E, Ingravallo F | display-authors=etal| title=Clinical and polysomnographic course of childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy. | journal=Brain | year= 2013 | volume= 136 | issue= Pt 12 | pages= 3787-95 | pmid=24142146 | doi=10.1093/brain/awt277 | pmc=3859221 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=24142146  }} </ref>
  
 
It is estimated that as many as 3 million people worldwide are affected by narcolepsy. It is as widespread as [[Parkinson's disease]] or [[multiple sclerosis]] and more prevalent than [[cystic fibrosis]], but it is less well known. Narcolepsy is often mistaken for [[clinical depression|depression]], [[epilepsy]], or the [[Adverse effect (medicine)|side effects]] of medications.
 
It is estimated that as many as 3 million people worldwide are affected by narcolepsy. It is as widespread as [[Parkinson's disease]] or [[multiple sclerosis]] and more prevalent than [[cystic fibrosis]], but it is less well known. Narcolepsy is often mistaken for [[clinical depression|depression]], [[epilepsy]], or the [[Adverse effect (medicine)|side effects]] of medications.

Revision as of 13:33, 1 July 2020

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Narcolepsy
ICD-10 G47.4
ICD-9 347
OMIM 161400
DiseasesDB 8801
MedlinePlus 000802
MeSH D009290

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Muhammad Waleed Haider, M.D.[2] Kiran Singh, M.D. [3]

Synonyms and Keywords: Narcolepsy, Cataplexy, Hypocretin/Orexin, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, Gamma hydroxybutyrate

Overview

Narcolepsy is a debilitating lifelong rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disorder that has a typical onset during adolescence or early adulthood and is characterized by a classic tetrad of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy (sudden symmetric loss of muscle tone during wakefulness that is evoked by strong emotions), sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations (hallucinations while falling asleep). Other features include frequent irresistible sleep attacks, fragmented night sleep, loss of concentration and memory, hypnopompic hallucinations (hallucinations during waking up) and blurry vision. Narcolepsy is of two types: narcolepsy type 1 (formerly narcolepsy with cataplexy) and narcolepsy type 2 (formerly narcolepsy without cataplexy). Narcolepsy can have severe consequences for the patient with impairments in academic, social and occupational performances. Problems may include social stigma associated with the disease, reduced quality of life, difficulty in obtaining an education and keeping a job and socioeconomic consequences. It can restrict patients from having certain careers and activities. Narcolepsy is often under-diagnosed and 5-10 years of delay is common before making a firm diagnosis.

Historical Perspective

The earliest account of Narcolepsy was described by Thomas Willis (1621-1675) in patients, "with a sleepy disposition who suddenly falls fast asleep." The first-ever descriptions of narcolepsy were reported by Westphal (1877) and Fisher (1878) in Germany.[1] They also observed a hereditary factor; the mother of Westphal's patient and a sister of Fisher's patient had similar features. French physician Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau (1880) described this condition in a wine merchant as neurosis or a functional condition. He gave Narcolepsy its name, which is the English form of the French word narcolepsie, and also recognized this disorder as a specific clinical entity.[2] The term narcolepsy is derived by combining the Greek narke numbness, stupor and lepsis attack, to seize. [Source: entry Narcolepsy. In the Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 18 Sep 2007. [4] Cataplexy from the Greek kataplexis (fixation of the eyes), was first named by Loëwenfeld (1902). Kinnier Wilson (1928) first coined the term, "sleep paralysis." Large case series of narcolepsy were reported by Addie (1926), Wilson (1927), and Daniels (1934). Review of Narcolepsy-cataplexy by Daniels is considered by many as one of the most insightful clinical reviews published. The classic description of Narcolepsy tetrad was possible due to further work by Yoss and Daly at the Mayo clinic in 1957 and Bedrich Roth in Prague. Various methods were initially proposed in the treatment of narcolepsy until Prinzmetal and Bloomberg introduced amphetamines in 1935. After the discovery of tricyclic antidepressants in 1957, Akimoto, Honda, and Takahashi used imipramine in the treatment of human cataplexy. Methylphenidate was introduced by Yoss and Daly in the 1960s. REM sleep at the onset of sleep attack in narcoleptic patients was first ever recorded and reported by Vogel (1960), an observation extended by Rechschaffen and Dement in 1967. Hishikawa (1968) studied the EEG of narcoleptic patients. These authors together first articulated the now classical hypothesis of dissociated REM sleep and explained some symptoms of narcolepsy. Their discovery established a multiple sleep latency test as a standard diagnostic test for narcolepsy in 1970. Further research work by Nathaniel Kleitman at the University of Chicago and William Dement and Dr. Christian Guilleminault at Stanford University in the 1970's helped in establishing this classical hypothesis of dissociated REM sleep in narcolepsy. Various causes or lesions were proposed for narcolepsy. Tumors situated in relation to the third ventricle were suggested as a possible cause of narcolepsy by Wilson. Von Economo first recognized the posterior hypothalamus as a crucial region governing wakefulness. Canine narcolepsy in various breeds of dogs was identified in 1973, by Knecht and Mitler. The first epidemiological studies of narcolepsy were performed by Roth (1980) and Dement (1972-73). Link with the HLA-DQB1*0602 gene on chromosome 6 was established in 1980s. As many HLA associated disorders are also autoimmune in nature, it raised the possibility that narcolepsy may be an autoimmune disorder. Hypocretins (orexins) were identified in 1990s. In 1998, DeLecea and Sakurai identified hypocretins/orexins almost simultaneously with a difference of a few weeks. Hypocretin deficiency was associated with human narcolepsy by Nishino and Ripley in 2000.

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of narcolepsy is only partly understood with the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. 75% discordance rate for narcolepsy in all described monozygotic twins supports the hypothesis that narcolepsy is a multifactorial disorder. Narcolepsy is considered to arise from multiple hits: the environmental factors, genetic predisposition, and triggering events lead to the selective, immune-mediated destruction, silencing or dysfunction of orexin-producing neurons. One study, published in 2018, described the presence of auto-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Narcolepsy. Three subsequent publications further supported the hypothesis of a pivotal role of specific T cells in the neuronal damage seen in narcolepsy.

Hypocretins

Hypocretins (the alternative name is orexins, from the Greek orexis for appetite) is neuroexcitatory peptides that promote wakefulness, stabilize behavioral states, couple the consciousness of wakefulness with the postural muscle tone, which is generally associated with it. Additional crucial functions of hypocretins besides regulation of sleep and wakefulness include autonomic regulation, emotional processing, energy homeostasis, and consummatory and reward associated behaviors. Blouin and Fried (2013) reported that hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone levels in humans are linked to emotions and social interactions. They identified that concentrations of hypocretins in the brains of participants were highest during social interactions, or when participants experienced either positive emotion or anger, and were lowest before sleeping or when they were experiencing pain. Orexin A and B are small neuropeptides, which excite target neurons through orexin receptors type 1 and 2, respectively. Loss of this crucial system results in the symptoms of narcolepsy and disrupts function of multiple frontal, limbic, diencephalic and brainstem networks.

Hypocretin (orexins) deficiency (Hypocretin is profoundly decreased in CSF of narcolepsy patients) causes the disease, but hypocretin genes are not mutated, suggesting a more complex cause in humans. Postmortem brain analysis in a three autopsy series in patients with narcolepsy showed substantial (75-95%) or complete elimination of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. It is also possible that some of these neurons are undetectable (due to silencing of orexin expression) but are not lost irreversibly. Postmortem analysis did not reveal any effect on the other adjacent neurons of the lateral hypothalamus (such as melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) producing neurons). Histopathology of the brain tissue showed increased gliosis but no inflammatory or neurodegenerative changes. Both Valko, P. and John, J. along with their respective teams independently reported in 2013, that narcolepsy patients have an increased number of histamine neurons (usually >50% higher than in healthy individuals) in their tuberomammillary nucleus, which is possibly a compensatory response to the loss of excitatory drive due to orexins. Narcolepsy patients with and without cataplexy may have normal levels of orexin in the CSF, while some patients with hypothalamic damage and subsequent low or absent levels of orexin in the CSF may not have any symptoms of narcolepsy or cataplexy. This observation suggests that a deficiency in orexin is not (always) necessary nor (always) sufficient to cause narcolepsy in humans.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Genetic and epigenetic factors

Studies conducted in twins for narcolepsy revealed only ~25% of concordance rate in monozygotic twins. Only 1-2% cases of narcolepsy are familial. Less than 2% of patients with narcolepsy have more than 1 affected family member, while multiplex families (families with more than 2 members) are rare. Narcolepsy has a close association with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II (encode molecules that present antigenic peptides to CD4+ helper T cells) region.[9] HLA-DQB1*06:02 is expressed in 86–98% of patients with narcolepsy type 1 and in ~40–50% of patients with narcolepsy type 2.[10] Other human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles are also associated with narcolepsy, although to a lesser extent than HLA-DQB1*06:02.[11][12] Some individuals in the general population (5-38%) can also express HLA-DQB1*06:02, while only 1 individual out of 1,000 carriers of this allele will eventually develop narcolepsy.[13] Association between HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity in the general population and shorter REM sleep latency, suggest that this EEG finding during sleep might represent a (first) biomarker of an increased risk of developing narcolepsy.[14] Jewish and Saudi populations have a low frequency of this allele, which might explain rare cases of narcolepsy in these populations.[15][16] Weak association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes (A, B and C) and narcolepsy has also been reported, which suggests that pathogenesis of narcolepsy involves cytotoxic immune mechanism and these patients might have an increased genetic susceptibility to infections. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes encode molecules that present antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells.[12][17] Genome-wide association study (2010) identified protective alleles in both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II genes, which might explain the role played by these protective alleles in causing the delay (or absence) of the evolution of narcolepsy seen in some patients.[18] Genome-wide association study also reported an association between susceptibility to narcolepsy and polymorphism in TRAC (which encodes the T cell receptor α-constant domain), further supporting the hypothesis that narcolepsy is an immune-mediated disease.[11][19] Associations between the narcolepsy and polymorphisms in other immune related genes have also been reported, including P2RY11 (modulates an autoimmune response to the infection and encodes P2Y receptor 11), TNFSF4 (which encodes tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand superfamily member 4) and CTSH (which encodes pro-cathepsin H).[20][21][22] No consistent associations were reported on performing gene sequencing studies in patients with familial narcolepsy, although mutations were identified in MOG (which encodes myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein), HRCT (which encodes orexin), and P2RY11 genes, which modulate the immune response.[23][24][25]

Immunologic factors

Narcolepsy occasionally occurs in association with autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and paraneoplastic syndromes, which suggests that narcolepsy may have an autoimmune pathogenesis.[26] Cvetikovic-Lopes, V. (2010) and Bergman, H. (2014) reported the presence of a few types of autoantibodies in the sera of narcolepsy patients. Although this finding is nonspecific as these antibodies were also detected in the sera from healthy controls and patients with other sleep disorders. In 2009, Dauvilliers, Y., Abril, B., and Mas, E. reported that patients with narcolepsy respond to immunomodulatory treatment. Luo, F. et al. (2018) suggested that molecular mimicry of a particular piece of the influenza haemagglutinin protein might trigger an autoimmune process targeting orexin neurons.[27][28] Further support for hypothesis that an autoimmune process contributes to narcolepsy includes the occasional presence of inflammatory findings in cerebrospinal fluid (e.g, pleocytosis and oligoclonal bands), although evidence for the presence of disease specific antibodies is lacking.[29][30][31][32][33] Increased levels of CD4+ T cells (helper T cells), some cytokines (Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-gamma (IFNγ)), and activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic T cells), have been reported in the serum and to some extent also in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with narcolepsy.[34][35][36][37] Autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have been identified in patients with narcolepsy, which specifically target antigens expressed by orexin neurons.[38][39][40][41]

Environmental factors

75% discordance rate for narcolepsy in all described monozygotic twins points to a contribution of environmental factors. Reported association between the risk of narcolepsy and season of birth in some but not all studies suggested that early life exposure to viruses, bacteria or toxins might alter the immune system development and thereby predispose individuals to narcolepsy. Subsequent exposure of these predisposed individuals to these or other environmental factors (infections) might trigger or reactivate an immune response leading to the destruction of orexin neurons.

Symonds, C. (1922), Redlich, E. (1924), and Mankowski, B. (1926) initially reported a temporal association between influenza or epidemic encephalitis lethargica and the onset of narcolepsy. Aran, A. et al. (2009) reported elevated titers of antistreptococcal antibodies in patients with recent-onset narcolepsy, which suggested an association of narcolepsy with other upper respiratory tract infections, particularly β-hemolytic streptococcal infections.[42] The most important reported association of narcolepsy with infections involves the influenza A virus (subtype H1N1). In 2009-2010, a statistically significant six to a ninefold increase in the risk of narcolepsy was reported in the northern European countries (eg, Finland) subsequent to vaccination campaign (with the Pandemrix vaccine) against the pandemic H1N1 influenza.[43][44] This association was not observed with any other influenza vaccines, which might be explained due to the differences in vaccine content of different influenza vaccines.[45][46] Childhood onset of narcolepsy might also be related to the H1N1 influenza infections pandemic of 2010-2011, which suggests that H1N1 influenza virus infection itself or some influenza vaccines might trigger the development of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy has also been reported to occur following other vaccinations (e.g, Post Tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccination narcolepsy with cataplexy), these associations could be coincidental or not causal.[47]

Han, F., Lin, L., and Li, J. (2013) reported a peak in the incidence of H1N1 influenza infections in China in late 2009, due to absence of the influenza vaccination, which was subsequently followed by a threefold increase in the incidence of narcolepsy during the winter of 2009–2010, compared with both previous and subsequent years.[48] Although a peak in the incidence of narcolepsy was reported in China, it was not observed in Taiwan despite exposure to the same epidemic.[49] Lankford, D. (1994) and Silber, M. H. (2005) reported occurrence of narcolepsy after traumatic brain injury.[50]

In the early 1980s, evidence of an association between narcolepsy and the HLA system suggested the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy.

While the cause of narcolepsy has not yet been determined, scientists have discovered conditions that may increase an individual's risk of having the disorder. Specifically, there appears to be a strong link between narcoleptic individuals and certain genetic conditions. One factor that may predispose an individual to narcolepsy involves an area of Chromosome 6 known as the HLA complex. There appears to be a correlation between narcoleptic individuals and certain variations in HLA genes, although it is not required for the condition to occur.

Certain variations in the HLA complex are thought to increase the risk of an auto-immune response to protein producing neurons in the brain. The protein produced, called hypocretin or orexin, is responsible for controlling appetite and sleep patterns. Individuals with narcolepsy often have reduced numbers of these protein-producing neurons in their brains.

The neural control of normal sleep states and the relationship to narcolepsy are only partially understood. In humans, narcoleptic sleep is characterized by a tendency to go abruptly from a waking state to REM sleep with little or no intervening non-REM sleep. The changes in the motor and proprioceptive systems during REM sleep have been studied in both human and animal models. During normal REM sleep, spinal and brainstem alpha motor neuron depolarization produces almost complete atonia of skeletal muscles via an inhibitory descending reticulospinal pathway. Acetylcholine may be one of the neurotransmitters involved in this pathway. In narcolepsy, the reflex inhibition of the motor system seen in cataplexy is believed identical to that seen in normal REM sleep.

In 2004 researchers in Australia induced narcolepsy-like symptoms in mice by injecting them with antibodies from narcoleptic humans. The research has been published in the Lancet providing strong evidence suggesting that some cases of narcolepsy might be caused by autoimmune disease.[51]

Narcolepsy is strongly associated with HLA DQB1*0602 genotype. There is also an association with HLA DR2 and HLA DQ1. This may represent linkage disequilibrium.

Despite the experimental evidence in human narcolepsy that there may be an inherited basis for at least some forms of narcolepsy, the mode of inheritance remains unknown.

Some cases are associated with genetic diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease[52] or Prader-Willi syndrome[53].

Differential Diagnosis

Epidemiology and Demographics

The prevalence of narcolepsy in individuals from North America and Europe is estimated to be ~200–500 cases per million individuals.[55][56][57] The highest prevalence of narcolepsy occurs in Japanese population (1,600 cases per million individuals), while the lowest prevalence occurs in Arabic and Jewish populations (2–40 cases per million individuals).[58][15][16] The global prevalence of narcolepsy in the overall population is 25-50 cases (0.025%-0.05%) per 100,000 individuals.[54][59][60] Narcolepsy can occur in both men and women, although in some studies, it affected more male than female individuals, which may be due to contribution by genetic and environmental factors. Morbidity and mortality data of middle-aged and elderly narcoleptics indicating increased mortality in patients with narcolepsy remains controversial.[61][62] Although narcolepsy can occur at any age (ranging from 3 years of age to 80 years), most cases of narcolepsy usually start in adolescence, with a small second peak of onset occurring at around 35 years of age (ranging from 30 to 39 years of age).[63][64] In some patients (10-15%), narcolepsy may start before the age of 10 years.[65] However, childhood-onset narcolepsy was systematically studied only in rare studies before the current century.[66][67][68] Long diagnostic delay of 8 to 12 years from the onset of disease can underestimate the prevalence of narcolepsy.[64][69] However, in recent years, more cases (especially in children) have been diagnosed sooner after onset, probably due to increasing awareness of the disease.[70][71]

It is estimated that as many as 3 million people worldwide are affected by narcolepsy. It is as widespread as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis and more prevalent than cystic fibrosis, but it is less well known. Narcolepsy is often mistaken for depression, epilepsy, or the side effects of medications.

Narcolepsy can occur in both men and women at any age, although its symptoms are usually first noticed in teenagers or young adults. There is strong evidence that narcolepsy may run in families; 8 to 12 percent of people with narcolepsy have a close relative with this neurologic disorder.

Narcolepsy has its typical onset in adolescence and young adulthood. There is an average 15-year delay between onset and correct diagnosis which may contribute substantially to the disabling features of the disorder. Cognitive, educational, occupational, and psychosocial problems associated with the excessive daytime sleepiness of narcolepsy have been documented. For these to occur in the crucial teen years when education, development of self-image, and development of occupational choice are taking place is especially damaging. While cognitive impairment does occur, it may only be a reflection of the excessive daytime somnolence.

It is a reason for patient visits to sleep disorder centers, and with its onset in adolescence, it is also a major cause of learning difficulty and absenteeism from school. Normal teenagers often already experience excessive daytime sleepiness because of a maturational increase in physiological sleep tendency accentuated by multiple educational and social pressures; this may be disabling with the addition of narcolepsy symptoms in susceptible teenagers. In clinical practice, the differentiation between narcolepsy and other conditions characterized by excessive somnolence may be difficult. Treatment options are currently limited. There is a paucity in the literature of controlled double-blind studies of possible effective drugs or other forms of therapy. Mechanisms of action of some of the few available therapeutic agents have been explored but detailed studies of mechanisms of action are needed before new classes of therapeutic agents can be developed.

Narcolepsy is an under diagnosed condition in the general population. This is partly because its severity varies from obvious down to barely noticeable. Some narcoleptics do not suffer from loss of muscle control. Others may only feel sleepy in the evenings.

Risk Factors

  • Genetic predisposition

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is relatively easy when all the symptoms of narcolepsy are present. But if the sleep attacks are isolated and cataplexy is mild or absent, diagnosis is more difficult.

Two tests that are commonly used in diagnosing narcolepsy are the polysomnogram and the multiple sleep latency test. These tests are usually performed by a sleep specialist. The polysomnogram involves continuous recording of sleep brain waves and a number of nerve and muscle functions during nighttime sleep. When tested, people with narcolepsy fall asleep rapidly, enter REM sleep early, and may awaken often during the night. The polysomnogram also helps to detect other possible sleep disorders that could cause daytime sleepiness.

For the multiple sleep latency test, a person is given a chance to sleep every 2 hours during normal wake times. Observations are made of the time taken to reach various stages of sleep. This test measures the degree of daytime sleepiness and also detects how soon REM sleep begins. Again, people with narcolepsy fall asleep rapidly and enter REM sleep early.

DSM-V Diagnostic Criteria for Narcolepsy[54]

  • A. Recurrent periods of an irrepressible need to sleep, lapsing into sleep, or napping occurring within the same day.These must have been occurring at least three times per week over the past 3 months.

AND

  • B. The presence of at least one of the following:
  • 1. Episodes of cataplexy, defined as either (a) or (b), occurring at least a few times per month:
  • a. In individuals with long-standing disease, brief (seconds to minutes) episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone with maintained consciousness that are precipitated by laughter or joking.
  • b. In children or in individuals within 6 months of onset, spontaneous grimaces or jaw-opening episodes with tongue thrusting or a global hypotonia, without any obvious emotional triggers.
  • 2. Hypocretin deficiency, as measured using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 immuno reactivity values (less than or equal to one-third of values obtained in healthy subjects tested using the same assay, or less than or equal to 110 pg/mL). Low CSF levels of hypocretin-1 must not be observed in the context of acute brain injury, inflammation, or infection.
  • 3. Nocturnal sleep polysomnography showing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency less than or equal to 15 minutes, or a multiple sleep latency test showing a mean sleep latency less than or equal to 8 minutes and two or more sleep-onset REM periods.
  • Specify whether:
  • Narcolepsy without cataplexy but with hypocretin deficiency:
  • Criterion B requirements of low CSF hypocretin-1 levels and positive polysomnography/ multiple sleep latency test are met, but no cataplexy is present (Criterion B1 not met).
  • Narcolepsy with cataplexy but without hypocretin deficiency:
  • In this rare subtype (less than 5% of narcolepsy cases), Criterion B requirements of cataplexy and positive polysomnography/multiple sleep latency test are met, but CS hypocretin-1 levels are normal (Criterion B2 not met).
  • This subtype is caused by exon 21 DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase-1 mutations and is characterized by late-onset (age 30-40 years) narcolepsy (with low or intermediate CSF hypocretin-1 levels), deafness, cerebellar ataxia, and eventually dementia.
  • Narcolepsy, obesity, and type 2 diabetes and low CSF hypocretin-1 levels have been described in rare cases and are associated with a mutation in the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein gene.
  • Narcolepsy secondary to another medical condition:
  • This subtype is for narcolepsy that develops secondary to medical conditions that cause infectious(e.g., Whipple’s disease, sarcoidosis), traumatic, or tumoral destruction of hypocretin neurons.
  • Specify current severity:
  • Mild: Infrequent cataplexy (less than once per week), need for naps only once or twice per day, and less disturbed nocturnal sleep.
  • Moderate: Cataplexy once daily or every few days, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and need for multiple naps daily.
  • Severe: Drug-resistant cataplexy with multiple attacks daily, nearly constant sleepiness,and disturbed nocturnal sleep (i.e., movements, insomnia, and vivid dreaming).

Symptoms

The main characteristic of narcolepsy is overwhelming excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), even after adequate night time sleep. A person with narcolepsy is likely to become drowsy or to fall asleep, often at inappropriate times and places. Daytime naps may occur without warning and may be physically irresistible. These naps can occur several times a day. They are typically refreshing, but only for a few hours. Drowsiness may persist for prolonged periods of time. In addition, night-time sleep may be fragmented with frequent awakenings. Four other classic symptoms of narcolepsy, which may not occur in all patients, are cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnogogic hallucinations, and automatic behavior. Cataplexy is an episodic condition featuring loss of muscle function, ranging from slight weakness (such as limpness at the neck or knees, sagging facial muscles, or inability to speak clearly) to complete body collapse. Episodes may be triggered by sudden emotional reactions such as laughter, anger, surprise, or fear, and may last from a few seconds to several minutes. The person remains conscious throughout the episode. Sleep paralysis is the temporary inability to talk or move when waking up. It may last a few seconds to minutes. This is often frightening but is not dangerous. Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid, often frightening, dreamlike experiences that occur while dozing, falling asleep and/or while awakening. Automatic behavior means that a person continues to function (talking, putting things away, etc.) during sleep episodes, but awakens with no memory of performing such activities. It is estimated that up to 40 percent of people with narcolepsy experience automatic behavior during sleep episodes. Daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations also occur in people who do not have narcolepsy, more frequently in people who are suffering from extreme lack of sleep. Cataplexy is generally considered to be unique to narcolepsy.

In most cases, the first symptom of narcolepsy to appear is excessive and overwhelming daytime sleepiness. The other symptoms may begin alone or in combination months or years after the onset of the daytime naps. There are wide variations in the development, severity, and order of appearance of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations in individuals. Only about 20 to 25 percent of people with narcolepsy experience all four symptoms. The excessive daytime sleepiness generally persists throughout life, but sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations may not.

Although these are the common symptoms of narcolepsy, many (although less than 40% of people with narcolepsy) also suffer from insomnia for extended periods of time. This is most often from

  • An excess of sleep.
  • Use of self-medications such as energy drinks, or caffeinated drinks.

The symptoms of narcolepsy, especially the excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, often become severe enough to cause serious problems in a person's social, personal, and professional life.

Normally, when an individual is awake, brain waves show a regular rhythm. When a person first falls asleep, the brain waves become slower and less regular. This sleep state is called non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. After about an hour and a half of NREM sleep, the brain waves begin to show a more active pattern again. This sleep state, called REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep), is when most remembered dreaming occurs. Associated with the EEG observed waves during REM sleep muscle atonia is present (called REM atonia).

In narcolepsy, the order and length of NREM and REM sleep periods are disturbed, with REM sleep occurring at sleep onset instead of after a period of NREM sleep. Thus, narcolepsy is a disorder in which REM sleep appears at an abnormal time. Also, some of the aspects of REM sleep that normally occur only during sleep — lack of muscular control, sleep paralysis, and vivid dreams — occur at other times in people with narcolepsy. For example, the lack of muscular control can occur during wakefulness in a cataplexy episode; it is said that there is intrusion of REM atonia during wakefulness. Sleep paralysis and vivid dreams can occur while falling asleep or waking up. Simply put, the brain does not pass through the normal stages of dozing and deep sleep but goes directly into (and out of) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This has several consequences:

  • Nighttime sleep does not include much deep sleep, so the brain tries to "catch up" during the day, hence EDS
  • May visibly fall asleep at any moment (such motions as head bobbing are common)
  • People with narcolepsy fall quickly into what appears to be very deep sleep
  • They wake up suddenly and can be disoriented when they do (dizziness is a common occurrence)
  • They have very vivid dreams, which they often remember
  • People with narcolepsy may dream even when they only fall asleep for a few seconds.

Treatment

The drowsiness is normally treated using amphetamine-like stimulants such as methylphenidate, racemic amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine, or modafinil, a new stimulant with a different pharmacologic mechanism.

Other medications used are codeine[72] and selegiline. Another drug that is used is atomoxetine[73] (Strattera), a non-stimulant and Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI), that has little or no abuse potential[74]. In many cases, planned regular short naps can reduce the need for pharmacological treatment of the EDS to a low or non-existent level. Cataplexy is frequently treated with tricyclic antidepressants such as clomipramine, imipramine, or protriptyline. Venlafaxine, a newer antidepressant which blocks the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, has shown usefulness in managing symptoms of cataplexy. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a medication recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is the only medication specifically indicated for cataplexy. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate has also been shown to reduce symptoms of EDS associated with narcolepsy. While the exact mechanism of action is unknown, GHB is thought to improve the quality of nocturnal sleep.

Treatment is tailored to the individual based on symptoms and therapeutic response. The time required to achieve optimal control of symptoms is highly variable, and may take several months or longer. Medication adjustments are also frequently necessary, and complete control of symptoms is seldom possible. While oral medications are the mainstay of narcolepsy treatment, lifestyle changes are also important. The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is with a group of drugs called central nervous system stimulants. For cataplexy and other REM-sleep symptoms, antidepressant medications and other drugs that suppress REM sleep are prescribed.

In addition to drug therapy, an important part of treatment is scheduling short naps (10 to 15 minutes) two to three times per day to help control excessive daytime sleepiness and help the person stay as alert as possible. Daytime naps are not a replacement for nighttime sleep.

Ongoing communication between the health care provider, patient, and the patient's family members is important to optimal management of narcolepsy.

Coping with Narcolepsy

Learning as much about narcolepsy as possible and finding a support system can help patients and families deal with the practical and emotional effects of the disorder, possible occupational limitations, and situations that might cause injury. A variety of educational and other materials are available from sleep medicine or narcolepsy organizations.

Support groups exist to help persons with narcolepsy and their families.

Individuals with narcolepsy, their families, friends, and potential employers should know that:

  • Narcolepsy is a life-long condition that may require continuous medication.
  • Although there is no cure for narcolepsy at present, several medications can help reduce its symptoms.
  • People with narcolepsy can lead productive lives if they are provided with proper medical care.
  • If possible, individuals with narcolepsy should avoid jobs that require driving long distances or handling hazardous equipment or that require alertness for lengthy periods.
  • Parents, teachers, spouses, and employers should be aware of the symptoms of narcolepsy. This will help them avoid the mistake of confusing the person's behavior with laziness, hostility, rejection, or lack of interest and motivation. It will also help them provide essential support and cooperation.
  • Employers can promote better working opportunities for individuals with narcolepsy by permitting special work schedules and nap breaks.

Doctors generally agree that lifestyle changes can be very helpful to those suffering with narcolepsy. Suggested self-care tips, from the National Sleep Foundation, University at Buffalo, and Mayo Clinic, include:

  • Take several short daily naps (10-15 minutes) to combat excessive sleepiness and sleep attacks.
  • Develop a routine sleep schedule – try to go to sleep and awaken at the same time every day.
  • Alert your employers, coworkers and friends in the hope that others will accommodate your condition and help when needed.
  • Do not drive or operate dangerous equipment if you are sleepy. Take a nap before driving if possible. Consider taking a break for a nap during a long driving trip.
  • Join a support group.
  • Break up larger tasks into small pieces and focusing on one small thing at a time.
  • Take several short walks during the day.
  • Carry a tape recorder, if possible, to record important conversations and meetings.

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af:Narkolepsie da:Narkolepsi de:Narkolepsie et:Narkolepsia ko:기면증 is:Drómasýki it:Narcolessia he:נרקולפסיה nl:Narcolepsie no:Narkolepsi simple:Narcolepsy sk:Narkolepsia fi:Narkolepsia sv:Narkolepsi



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