Difference between revisions of "Menopause historical perspective"

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=='''Overview'''==
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==Overview==
 
   
 
   
 
"The word “menopause” derives from the Greek “men” (month or monthly cycle) and “pausis” (end, stop)"<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558404/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20many%20factors,activity%2C%20unilateral%20oophorectomy%2C%20serum%20lead</ref>, menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle in women without any pathological causes because of physiological deficiency production of estrogen hormone in women."It occurs at an average age of 52 years, but the age of natural menopause can vary widely from 40 to 58 years".<ref>http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/nams-recomm-for-clinical-care.pdf</ref> it is considered a natural end to fertility in women. Menopause is a date: the day after a woman's last period ever finishes. In common everyday parlance, however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but the whole of the menopause transition years. This period time is also referred to as the change of life or the climacteric, "we should consider that 'menopause' is referring to a specific event, the cessation of menses, and 'climacteric' to gradual changes of ovarian function that start before the menopause and continue thereafter for a while". <ref name="pmid23998690">{{cite journal| author=Blümel JE, Lavín P, Vallejo MS, Sarrá S| title=Menopause or climacteric, just a semantic discussion or has it clinical implications? | journal=Climacteric | year= 2014 | volume= 17 | issue= 3 | pages= 235-41 | pmid=23998690 | doi=10.3109/13697137.2013.838948 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23998690  }} </ref> And more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause"). A woman is considered in menopause after amenorrhea for 12 months and she becomes suffering from the menopausal symptoms whose intensity varies from woman to another.<ref>Women to Women. (2011). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/menopause/postmenopausal.aspx/</ref> "There are health problems related to menopause due to deficiency of estrogen, hormonal imbalance, and changes in body composition. These changes lead to alterations in energy levels, memory, bone health, hormones, and heart health".<ref> Women's Health Concern. (2009).Focus on… Diet, nutrition, and menopause. Retrieved from http://www.womens-health-concern.org/help/focuson/focus_dietmenopause.html/</ref> " Women in post-menopause are at an increased risk of diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, overweight"<big>.<ref> Jean Hailes for Women's Health. (2012). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.managingmenopause.org.au/images/stories/Education/Documents/info/nutritional_tips.pdf/</ref></big>
 
"The word “menopause” derives from the Greek “men” (month or monthly cycle) and “pausis” (end, stop)"<ref>https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558404/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20many%20factors,activity%2C%20unilateral%20oophorectomy%2C%20serum%20lead</ref>, menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle in women without any pathological causes because of physiological deficiency production of estrogen hormone in women."It occurs at an average age of 52 years, but the age of natural menopause can vary widely from 40 to 58 years".<ref>http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/nams-recomm-for-clinical-care.pdf</ref> it is considered a natural end to fertility in women. Menopause is a date: the day after a woman's last period ever finishes. In common everyday parlance, however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but the whole of the menopause transition years. This period time is also referred to as the change of life or the climacteric, "we should consider that 'menopause' is referring to a specific event, the cessation of menses, and 'climacteric' to gradual changes of ovarian function that start before the menopause and continue thereafter for a while". <ref name="pmid23998690">{{cite journal| author=Blümel JE, Lavín P, Vallejo MS, Sarrá S| title=Menopause or climacteric, just a semantic discussion or has it clinical implications? | journal=Climacteric | year= 2014 | volume= 17 | issue= 3 | pages= 235-41 | pmid=23998690 | doi=10.3109/13697137.2013.838948 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23998690  }} </ref> And more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause"). A woman is considered in menopause after amenorrhea for 12 months and she becomes suffering from the menopausal symptoms whose intensity varies from woman to another.<ref>Women to Women. (2011). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/menopause/postmenopausal.aspx/</ref> "There are health problems related to menopause due to deficiency of estrogen, hormonal imbalance, and changes in body composition. These changes lead to alterations in energy levels, memory, bone health, hormones, and heart health".<ref> Women's Health Concern. (2009).Focus on… Diet, nutrition, and menopause. Retrieved from http://www.womens-health-concern.org/help/focuson/focus_dietmenopause.html/</ref> " Women in post-menopause are at an increased risk of diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, overweight"<big>.<ref> Jean Hailes for Women's Health. (2012). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.managingmenopause.org.au/images/stories/Education/Documents/info/nutritional_tips.pdf/</ref></big>
=='''Historical Perspective'''==
+
==Historical Perspective==
  
 
*In the past, the studies on cessation of the menstrual cycle after 40 years of age in women were very rare, A French physician named the cessation of the menstrual cycle as a term of menopause in 1821.
 
*In the past, the studies on cessation of the menstrual cycle after 40 years of age in women were very rare, A French physician named the cessation of the menstrual cycle as a term of menopause in 1821.

Latest revision as of 16:03, 2 August 2020


Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Editor-In-Chief: Rahmah Al-Edresi, M.D.

Overview

"The word “menopause” derives from the Greek “men” (month or monthly cycle) and “pausis” (end, stop)"[1], menopause is the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle in women without any pathological causes because of physiological deficiency production of estrogen hormone in women."It occurs at an average age of 52 years, but the age of natural menopause can vary widely from 40 to 58 years".[2] it is considered a natural end to fertility in women. Menopause is a date: the day after a woman's last period ever finishes. In common everyday parlance, however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but the whole of the menopause transition years. This period time is also referred to as the change of life or the climacteric, "we should consider that 'menopause' is referring to a specific event, the cessation of menses, and 'climacteric' to gradual changes of ovarian function that start before the menopause and continue thereafter for a while". [3] And more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause"). A woman is considered in menopause after amenorrhea for 12 months and she becomes suffering from the menopausal symptoms whose intensity varies from woman to another.[4] "There are health problems related to menopause due to deficiency of estrogen, hormonal imbalance, and changes in body composition. These changes lead to alterations in energy levels, memory, bone health, hormones, and heart health".[5] " Women in post-menopause are at an increased risk of diseases such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, overweight".[6]

Historical Perspective

  • In the past, the studies on cessation of the menstrual cycle after 40 years of age in women were very rare, A French physician named the cessation of the menstrual cycle as a term of menopause in 1821.
  • the medical interest in menopause started in the mid-19th century and therefore knew the menopause symptoms because of deficiency of estrogen hormone and was treated of menopause symptoms by estrogen replacement therapy in the 1970s and had been developed in 1938.
  • International Menopause Society was founded in the 1970s and the first international conference on menopause was organized in Paris, France in 1976.
  • "Symptomatically of menopause differs in different areas of the world e.g In West - hot flush, in Japan shoulder pain and India low vision are the hallmarks of menopause. HRT use rate is high in the West while it is low or negligible in countries like India. Age at menopause is also higher in the West as compared to the range of 45-47 years in developing countries like India. Historically also a lower age at menopause was range documented in earlier times. This rose to the range of 50-51 years in the present era".
  • Overall, women in western countries viewed menopause negatively contrasted with the positive outlook of women in developing countries like India.[7]

The possible significance of menopause in human evolution

The Grandmother hypothesis considers that the menopause may have been selected for in human evolution because later life infertility could have conferred an evolutionary advantage by allowing older women to spend more time helping with the survival of their existing children and grandchildren.

Menopause in other species

Unlike humans, other mammals rarely experience menopause, but it does exist in some of the other few mammal species that experience menstrual cycles, such as rhesus monkeys[8] and some cetaceans.[9]

However, menopause exists in some other animals, many of which do not have monthly menstruation in this case, the term means a natural end to fertility.[10]

References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558404/#:~:text=Studies%20have%20shown%20many%20factors,activity%2C%20unilateral%20oophorectomy%2C%20serum%20lead
  2. http://www.menopause.org/docs/default-source/2014/nams-recomm-for-clinical-care.pdf
  3. Blümel JE, Lavín P, Vallejo MS, Sarrá S (2014). "Menopause or climacteric, just a semantic discussion or has it clinical implications?". Climacteric. 17 (3): 235–41. doi:10.3109/13697137.2013.838948. PMID 23998690.
  4. Women to Women. (2011). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.womentowomen.com/menopause/postmenopausal.aspx/
  5. Women's Health Concern. (2009).Focus on… Diet, nutrition, and menopause. Retrieved from http://www.womens-health-concern.org/help/focuson/focus_dietmenopause.html/
  6. Jean Hailes for Women's Health. (2012). Understanding what menopause is. Retrieved from http://www.managingmenopause.org.au/images/stories/Education/Documents/info/nutritional_tips.pdf/
  7. Singh A, Kaur S, Walia I (2002). "A historical perspective on menopause and menopausal age". Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad. 32 (2): 121–35. PMID 15981376.
  8. Walker ML (1995). "Menopause in female rhesus monkeys". Am J Primatol. 35: 59–71.
  9. McAuliffe K, Whitehead H (2005). "Eusociality, menopause and information in matrilineal whales". Trends Ecol Evolution. 20: 650.
  10. Walker ML, Herndon JG (2008). "Menopause in nonhuman primates?". Biol Reprod. 79 (3): 398–406. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.108.068536. PMC 2553520. PMID 18495681.