Hypoparathyroidism causes

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Hypoparathyroidism Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Hypoparathyroidism from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


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Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Charmaine Patel, M.D. [2] Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.


Hypoparathyroidism is commonly caused by autoimmune endocrine dysfunction, iron and magnesium deficiency in the blood, and surgical removal or alteration of the thyroid gland. Metastatic causes of hypoparathyroidism, including pituitary gland carcinoma, are life threatening and require prompt diagnosis and treatment to reduce morbitiy.


Hypoparathyroidism can have a number of divergent causes:

  • Removal of the parathyroid glands in thyroid surgery (thyroidectomy) is a recognised cause. It is now uncommon, as surgeons generally spare them during the procedure after identifying them.
  • Autoimmune invasion and destruction is the most common non-surgical cause. It can occur as part of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes.
  • Hemochromatosis can lead to iron accumulation and consequent dysfunction of a number of endocrine organs, including the parathyroids.
  • Absence or dysfunction of the parathyroid glands is one of the components of chromosome 22q11 microdeletion syndrome (other names: DiGeorge syndrome, Schprintzen syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome).
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Some very rare diseases
  • Idiopathic (of unknown cause), occasionally familial

Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental Bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis syndrome 
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect No underlying causes
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Abnormal parathyroid gland development, Abnormal pth synthesis, Addison's disease, Adenylyl cyclase dysfunction , Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome , Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia , Calcium-sensing receptor activation, Congenital lack of parathyroid glands, Fahr disease, Hungry bone syndrome , Parathyroid inflammation, Parathyroid surgery, Pituitary iron overload , Pituitary metastasis, Polyendocrine deficiency syndrome , Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome , Primary adrenal insufficiency, Radical neck dissection, Thyroid surgery , Thyroidectomy
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic 22q11.2 deletion syndrome , Alport syndrome , Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia , Bangstad syndrome , Barakat syndrome , Bird-headed dwarfism , Chromosome 10, monosomy 10p, Chromosome 10p deletion syndrome, Chromosome 22q deletion syndrome , Chromosome 22q deletion , Congenital lack of parathyroid glands, Dahlberg syndrome , Deletion 10pter , Digeorge syndrome, Fahr disease, Genetic disorders, Kenny-caffey-linarelli syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome 
Hematologic Calcium-sensing receptor activation, Hemochromatosis , Hemosiderosis, Hypomagnesemia, Magnesium deficiency, Pituitary iron overload
Iatrogenic Hungry bone syndrome , Idiopathic , Parathyroid surgery, Parathyroidectomy, Radiation, Radical neck dissection, Radioactive iodine treatment, Thyroid surgery , Thyroidectomy
Infectious Disease Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, Hiv , Parathyroid inflammation
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Ataxia , Bird-headed dwarfism
Neurologic Ataxia , Bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis syndrome 
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Carcinoma, Pituitary metastasis
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome, Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome , Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome 
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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