Hyperthyroidism causes

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Hyperthyroidism Microchapters

Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Differentiating hyperthyroidism from other diseases

Pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Hyperthyroidism is the result of excess thyroid hormone production, causing an overactive metabolism and increased speed of all the body's processes.

Thyroid hormone generally controls the pace of all of the processes in the body. This pace is called one's metabolism. If there is too much thyroid hormone, every function of the body tends to speed up. The thyroid gland regulates the body temperature by secreting two hormones that control how quickly the body burns calories and energy. If the thyroid produces too much hormone, the condition is called hyperthyroidism, but if too little is produced, the result is hypothyroidism.

Causes

Major causes in humans are:

Other causes of hyperthyroxinemia (high blood levels of thyroid hormones) are not to be confused with true hyperthyroidism and include subacute and other forms of thyroiditis (inflammation) and struma ovarii (a teratoma). Thyrotoxicosis (symptoms caused by hyperthyroxinemia) can occur in both hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis. When it causes acutely increased metabolism, it is sometimes called "thyroid storm", a life-threatening event characterized by tachycardia, hypertension, and fever.

Excess thyroid hormone from pills can also cause hyperthyroidism. Amiodarone, a heart medication, can sometimes cause hyperthyroidism. Hamburger toxicosis is a condition that occurs sporadically and is associated with ground beef contaminated with thyroid hormone.

Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in about 7% of women during the year after they give birth. PPT typically has several phases, the first of which is hyperthyroidism. Many times, the hyperthyroidism corrects itself within weeks or months without any treatment necessary.

Life Threatening Causes

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular No underlying causes
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Hydatidiform mole
Drug Side Effect Amiodarone , Atezolizumab, Levothyroxine and indinavir interaction, Nivolumab, Potassium iodide, Pramipexole, Sorafenib, Thyroxine
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Anterior pituitary hyperhormonotrophic syndrome, Autoimmune enteropathy, Autoimmune thyroid disease, Autonomous thyroid tissue , Choriocarcinoma, De quervain thyroiditis, Excessive replacement therapy, Exogenous thyroid hormone intake, Factitious thyroiditis , Graves' disease , Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Jod-basedow thyrotoxicosis, Metastatic follicular thyroid cancer, Pituitary tumor, Polyendocrinopathy, Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, Postpartum thyroiditis, Suppurative thyroiditis, Thyroid adenoma, Thyroid carcinoma, Thyroid nodule, Thyroid stimulating globulin, Thyroid tumor, Thyroiditis, Thyrotropinoma, Toxic adenoma, Toxic multinodular goiter, Toxic thyroid adenoma, Tsh hypersecretion, Tsh-mediated hyperthyroidism, Tsh-producing pituitary adenoma
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Enteropathy
Genetic Glutaricaciduria type 3, Ipex syndrome , Mccune-albright syndrome , Troell-junet syndrome
Hematologic Diabetes mellitus
Iatrogenic Excessive replacement therapy, Exogenous thyroid hormone intake, Intentional suppressive therapy, Iodine overuse 
Infectious Disease Hashitoxicosis, Thyrotoxicosis factitia
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea
Obstetric/Gynecologic Hyperemesis gravidarum, Teratoma, Trophoblastic disease
Oncologic Adenocarcinoma, Choriocarcinoma, Metastatic follicular thyroid cancer, Pituitary tumor, Struma ovarii , Teratoma, Testicular cancer, Thyroid adenoma, Thyroid carcinoma, Thyroid nodule, Thyroid tumor, Thyrotropinoma, Toxic adenoma, Toxic thyroid adenoma, Trophoblastic disease, Tsh-producing pituitary adenoma
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity Iodine overuse 
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Autoimmune enteropathy, Autoimmune thyroid disease, Autonomous thyroid tissue , Immune dysregulation, Intentional suppressive therapy, Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic Testicular cancer
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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References



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