FAM231B

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

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RefSeq (protein)

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Location (UCSC)n/an/a
PubMed searchn/an/a
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FAM231B, or family with sequence similarity 231B, is a protein found in humans and is encoded by FAM231B gene.[1] Orthologs of FAM231B are only found back to primates.[2]

Gene

FAM231B is found on human Chromosome 1 on locus 1p36.13 running in the positive direction, surrounded by RNU1-6P upstream and transfer RNA-Gly 4-1 downstream.[3][4] There are no aliases of FAM231B.[5] Its mRNA sequence is 1312 base pairs long, with the coding sequence in region 343 through 852, and there is only one exon.[6]

File:FAM231B Chromosome Location.png
A diagram depicting the location of FAM231B on human chromosome 1.

Protein

The protein is 169 amino acids long.[7] The molecular weight of the unprocessed protein is 18.2 kDa and the processed protein is 18.3 kDa.[8] The isoelectric point of the protein is 7.76 and a mixed charged cluster was found from amino acid 66 to 125.[9] Other features of the protein include a positive charge run and a negative charge run, both spanning 4 amino acids.[10]

The predicted secondary structure of the protein consists of many coils, 3 β-sheets and 5 α-helixes.[11] Potential post-translational modifications of the protein include myristoylation and sumoylation.[12][13]The mature protein is predicted to be transported to the nucleus.[14]

Expression in Tissues

FAM231B is highly regulated in brain tissue and the spinal cord.[15] From GeoProfiles, other tissues where expression is regulated are visceral fat, adipose, thyroid, breast, coronary artery, pancreas, colon, vaginal epithelium, smooth muscle, and fallopian tube epithelium.[16]

Regulation of Expression

FAM231B contains a Kozak consensus sequence surrounding the start codon nucleotides. The primary promoter region for the human FAM231B gene is 1443 base pairs long.[17]

Predicted regulation in the secondary structure are two stem loops in the 5' UTR and two more in the 3' UTR.[18]

Function

The function of the protein is not yet well understood in the scientific community. The protein contains domain of unknown function (DUF) 4741, which is part of the FAM231 family.[19]

Homology & Evolution

File:Evolutiongraph.png
A graph comparing the evolutionary rate of FAM231B and its homologs to the Fibrinogen and Cytochrome C proteins. 

There are three human paralogs: FAM231A, FAM231C, and FAM231D and a comparison of the protein percent identity and similarity are found in the table below. There are three strict orthologs of FAM231B: in humans, the Pan troglodytes (Common chimpanzee), and the Papio anubis (Olive baboon). No other orthologs are found beyond primates.[20]

The evolutionary rate of FAM231B was compared to Fibrinogen and Cytochrome C. FAM231B is predicted to have evolved faster than both of the proteins compared.

Table of FAM231B Paralogs

Protein name Accession number Sequence length Percent identity Percent similarity
FAM231B NP_001297084.1 169 - -
FAM231A NP_001269250.1 169 87.6 89.9
FAM231C NP_001297067.1 169 87.6 89.9
FAM231D NP_001335076.1 169 84.6 89.3

Table of FAM231B Orthologs

Scientific name Common name Accession number Sequence length Percent identity Percent similarity
Homo sapiens Human NP_001297084.1 169 - -
Pan troglodytes Common chimpanzee XP_009438255.2 169 97.0 97.6
Papio anubis Olive baboon XP_009178303.1 214 84.6 89.9

References

  1. "protein FAM231B [Homo sapiens]". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. September 13, 2016.
  2. "BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool". blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  3. "Homo sapiens family with sequence similarity 231 member B (FAM231B), mRNA". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. September 13, 2016.
  4. "GeneLoc Integrated Map for Chromosome 1: Search Results". genecards.weizmann.ac.il. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  5. "FAM231B Gene (Protein Coding)". GeneCards. February 25, 2017.
  6. "Homo sapiens family with sequence similarity 231 member B (FAM231B), mRNA". NCBI. September 13, 2016.
  7. "protein FAM231B [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  8. Database, GeneCards Human Gene. "FAM231B Gene - GeneCards | F231B Protein | F231B Antibody". www.genecards.org. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  9. Workbench, NCSA Biology. "SDSC Biology Workbench". workbench.sdsc.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  10. "FAM231B protein analysis with SAPS". SDSC Biology Workbench. April 13, 2017.
  11. Workbench, NCSA Biology. "SDSC Biology Workbench". workbench.sdsc.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  12. "PSORT II Prediction". psort.hgc.jp. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  13. "ExPASy: SIB Bioinformatics Resource Portal - Home". www.expasy.org. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  14. "PSORT II Prediction". psort.hgc.jp. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  15. github.com/gxa/atlas/graphs/contributors, EMBL-EBI Expression Atlas development team:. "Expression summary for FAM231B - homo sapiens < Expression Atlas < EMBL-EBI". www.ebi.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  16. "FAM231B - GEO Profiles - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  17. "Genomatix - NGS Data Analysis & Personalized Medicine". Genomatix ElDorado. April 1, 2017.
  18. "The mfold Web Server". The RNA Institute, College of Arts and Sciences, State University of New York at Albany. April 1, 2017.
  19. "protein FAM231B [Homo sapiens] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  20. "BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. March 6, 2017.

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