Difference between revisions of "Diabetes mellitus type 2 risk factors"

Jump to: navigation, search
 
Line 4: Line 4:
  
 
==Overview==
 
==Overview==
Common risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes include: positive family history, certain [[Ethnicity and health|ethnicity]], [[obesity]], [[smoking]], [[physical inactivity]], poor dietary habits, certain drugs (.eg. [[glucocorticoids]]) and certain medical conditions that may result in [[weight gain]] and inactivity.
+
Common [[Risk factor|risk factors]] associated with the development of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|type 2 diabetes]] include: positive [[family history]], certain [[Ethnicity and health|ethnicity]], [[obesity]], [[smoking]], [[physical inactivity]], poor dietary habits, [[Ageing|aging]], certain drugs (.eg. [[glucocorticoids]]) and certain medical conditions that may result in [[weight gain]] and inactivity.
  
 
==Risk Factors==
 
==Risk Factors==
There are many risk factors associated with the development of diabetes mellitus type 2. These include:  
+
 
*[[Family history]]: <ref name="pmid23052052">{{cite journal |vauthors=Scott RA, Langenberg C, Sharp SJ, Franks PW, Rolandsson O, Drogan D, van der Schouw YT, Ekelund U, Kerrison ND, Ardanaz E, Arriola L, Balkau B, Barricarte A, Barroso I, Bendinelli B, Beulens JW, Boeing H, de Lauzon-Guillain B, Deloukas P, Fagherazzi G, Gonzalez C, Griffin SJ, Groop LC, Halkjaer J, Huerta JM, Kaaks R, Khaw KT, Krogh V, Nilsson PM, Norat T, Overvad K, Panico S, Rodriguez-Suarez L, Romaguera D, Romieu I, Sacerdote C, Sánchez MJ, Spijkerman AM, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tumino R, van der A DL, Wark PA, McCarthy MI, Riboli E, Wareham NJ |title=The link between family history and risk of type 2 diabetes is not explained by anthropometric, lifestyle or genetic risk factors: the EPIC-InterAct study |journal=Diabetologia |volume=56 |issue=1 |pages=60–9 |year=2013 |pmid=23052052 |pmc=4038917 |doi=10.1007/s00125-012-2715-x |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid11118026">{{cite journal |vauthors=Meigs JB, Cupples LA, Wilson PW |title=Parental transmission of type 2 diabetes: the Framingham Offspring Study |journal=Diabetes |volume=49 |issue=12 |pages=2201–7 |year=2000 |pmid=11118026 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
+
* There are many [[Risk factor|risk factors]] associated with the development of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]]. These include:  
**People with a first degree relative with [[diabetes mellitus type 2]] have a 2-3 fold increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2.
+
**[[Family history]]: <ref name="pmid23052052">{{cite journal |vauthors=Scott RA, Langenberg C, Sharp SJ, Franks PW, Rolandsson O, Drogan D, van der Schouw YT, Ekelund U, Kerrison ND, Ardanaz E, Arriola L, Balkau B, Barricarte A, Barroso I, Bendinelli B, Beulens JW, Boeing H, de Lauzon-Guillain B, Deloukas P, Fagherazzi G, Gonzalez C, Griffin SJ, Groop LC, Halkjaer J, Huerta JM, Kaaks R, Khaw KT, Krogh V, Nilsson PM, Norat T, Overvad K, Panico S, Rodriguez-Suarez L, Romaguera D, Romieu I, Sacerdote C, Sánchez MJ, Spijkerman AM, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tumino R, van der A DL, Wark PA, McCarthy MI, Riboli E, Wareham NJ |title=The link between family history and risk of type 2 diabetes is not explained by anthropometric, lifestyle or genetic risk factors: the EPIC-InterAct study |journal=Diabetologia |volume=56 |issue=1 |pages=60–9 |year=2013 |pmid=23052052 |pmc=4038917 |doi=10.1007/s00125-012-2715-x |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid11118026">{{cite journal |vauthors=Meigs JB, Cupples LA, Wilson PW |title=Parental transmission of type 2 diabetes: the Framingham Offspring Study |journal=Diabetes |volume=49 |issue=12 |pages=2201–7 |year=2000 |pmid=11118026 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
**Positive family history of diabetes mellitus type 2 in parents increases the risk by 5-6 folds.
+
***People with a first degree relative with [[diabetes mellitus type 2]] have a 2-3 fold increased risk of developing [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
*[[Ageing|Aging]] and high age at [[menarche]] are also considered as risk factors of type 2 diabetes.<ref name="NerurkarBellou201811">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
***Positive [[family history]] of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]] in parents increases the risk by 5-6 folds.
*[[Ethnicity and health|Ethnicity]]: the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 is highest among the American Indians and Alaska natives, followed by non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans<ref name="pmid24733192">{{cite journal |vauthors=Selvin E, Parrinello CM, Sacks DB, Coresh J |title=Trends in prevalence and control of diabetes in the United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2010 |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=160 |issue=8 |pages=517–25 |year=2014 |pmid=24733192 |pmc=4442608 |doi=10.7326/M13-2411 |url=}}</ref>.
+
**[[Ageing|Aging]] and high age at [[menarche]] are also considered as [[Risk factor|risk factors]] of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|type 2 diabetes]].<ref name="NerurkarBellou201811">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
*[[Obesity]] and [[fat]] distribution:<ref name="pmid12503980">{{cite journal |vauthors=Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS |title=Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001 |journal=JAMA |volume=289 |issue=1 |pages=76–9 |year=2003 |pmid=12503980 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid21128002">{{cite journal |vauthors=Nguyen NT, Nguyen XM, Lane J, Wang P |title=Relationship between obesity and diabetes in a US adult population: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006 |journal=Obes Surg |volume=21 |issue=3 |pages=351–5 |year=2011 |pmid=21128002 |pmc=3040808 |doi=10.1007/s11695-010-0335-4 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid1737857">{{cite journal |vauthors=Friedman JE, Dohm GL, Leggett-Frazier N, Elton CW, Tapscott EB, Pories WP, Caro JF |title=Restoration of insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients after weight loss. Effect on muscle glucose transport and glucose transporter GLUT4 |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=89 |issue=2 |pages=701–5 |year=1992 |pmid=1737857 |pmc=442905 |doi=10.1172/JCI115638 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7988316">{{cite journal |vauthors=Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC |title=Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men |journal=Diabetes Care |volume=17 |issue=9 |pages=961–9 |year=1994 |pmid=7988316 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="HuttunenSyrjänen2012">{{cite journal|last1=Huttunen|first1=R|last2=Syrjänen|first2=J|title=Obesity and the risk and outcome of infection|journal=International Journal of Obesity|volume=37|issue=3|year=2012|pages=333–340|issn=0307-0565|doi=10.1038/ijo.2012.62}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20185">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
**[[Ethnicity and health|Ethnicity]]: the [[prevalence]] of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]] is highest among the American Indians and Alaska natives, followed by non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans<ref name="pmid24733192">{{cite journal |vauthors=Selvin E, Parrinello CM, Sacks DB, Coresh J |title=Trends in prevalence and control of diabetes in the United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2010 |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=160 |issue=8 |pages=517–25 |year=2014 |pmid=24733192 |pmc=4442608 |doi=10.7326/M13-2411 |url=}}</ref>.
**Increased body [[weight]] and a higher [[BMI]] is associated with an increased [[incidence]] of [[impaired glucose tolerance]] and [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
+
**[[Obesity]] and [[fat]] distribution:<ref name="pmid12503980">{{cite journal |vauthors=Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS |title=Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001 |journal=JAMA |volume=289 |issue=1 |pages=76–9 |year=2003 |pmid=12503980 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid21128002">{{cite journal |vauthors=Nguyen NT, Nguyen XM, Lane J, Wang P |title=Relationship between obesity and diabetes in a US adult population: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006 |journal=Obes Surg |volume=21 |issue=3 |pages=351–5 |year=2011 |pmid=21128002 |pmc=3040808 |doi=10.1007/s11695-010-0335-4 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid1737857">{{cite journal |vauthors=Friedman JE, Dohm GL, Leggett-Frazier N, Elton CW, Tapscott EB, Pories WP, Caro JF |title=Restoration of insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients after weight loss. Effect on muscle glucose transport and glucose transporter GLUT4 |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=89 |issue=2 |pages=701–5 |year=1992 |pmid=1737857 |pmc=442905 |doi=10.1172/JCI115638 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7988316">{{cite journal |vauthors=Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC |title=Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men |journal=Diabetes Care |volume=17 |issue=9 |pages=961–9 |year=1994 |pmid=7988316 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="HuttunenSyrjänen2012">{{cite journal|last1=Huttunen|first1=R|last2=Syrjänen|first2=J|title=Obesity and the risk and outcome of infection|journal=International Journal of Obesity|volume=37|issue=3|year=2012|pages=333–340|issn=0307-0565|doi=10.1038/ijo.2012.62}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20185">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
**[[Central obesity|Central]] or [[abdominal obesity]], as measured by an increased waist circumference or an increased waist-to-hip ratio increases the risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].  
+
***Increased body [[weight]] and a higher [[BMI]] is associated with an increased [[incidence]] of [[impaired glucose tolerance]] and [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
**Decreased hip circumference is related to higher chance of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|diabetes type 2]] development.  
+
***[[Central obesity|Central]] or [[abdominal obesity]], as measured by an increased waist circumference or an increased waist-to-hip ratio, increases the risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
**A [[cohort study]] done on [[male]] [[Diabetes mellitus|diabetic]] patients, proved [[obesity]] as a [[risk factor]] for [[urinary tract infection]] ([[Urinary tract infection|UTI]]).
+
***Decreased hip circumference is related to higher chance of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|diabetes type 2]] development.
*[[Smoking]]: <ref name="pmid11063954">{{cite journal |vauthors=Manson JE, Ajani UA, Liu S, Nathan DM, Hennekens CH |title=A prospective study of cigarette smoking and the incidence of diabetes mellitus among US male physicians |journal=Am. J. Med. |volume=109 |issue=7 |pages=538–42 |year=2000 |pmid=11063954 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid2589303">{{cite journal |vauthors=Feskens EJ, Kromhout D |title=Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study |journal=Am. J. Epidemiol. |volume=130 |issue=6 |pages=1101–8 |year=1989 |pmid=2589303 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7888928">{{cite journal |vauthors=Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC |title=Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men |journal=BMJ |volume=310 |issue=6979 |pages=555–9 |year=1995 |pmid=7888928 |pmc=2548937 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid16186287">{{cite journal |vauthors=Foy CG, Bell RA, Farmer DF, Goff DC, Wagenknecht LE |title=Smoking and incidence of diabetes among U.S. adults: findings from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study |journal=Diabetes Care |volume=28 |issue=10 |pages=2501–7 |year=2005 |pmid=16186287 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="CichoszJensen2020">{{cite journal|last1=Cichosz|first1=Simon Lebech|last2=Jensen|first2=Morten Hasselstrøm|last3=Hejlesen|first3=Ole|title=Associations between smoking, glucose metabolism and lipid levels: A cross-sectional study|journal=Journal of Diabetes and its Complications|year=2020|pages=107649|issn=10568727|doi=10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2020.107649}}</ref>
+
***A [[cohort study]] done on [[male]] [[Diabetes mellitus|diabetic]] patients, proved [[obesity]] as a [[risk factor]] for [[urinary tract infection]] ([[Urinary tract infection|UTI]]).
**[[Smoking]] may impair [[insulin]] sensitivity and has been found to increase blood [[glucose]] levels following an [[oral glucose tolerance test]] ([[OGTT]]).
+
**[[Smoking]]: <ref name="pmid11063954">{{cite journal |vauthors=Manson JE, Ajani UA, Liu S, Nathan DM, Hennekens CH |title=A prospective study of cigarette smoking and the incidence of diabetes mellitus among US male physicians |journal=Am. J. Med. |volume=109 |issue=7 |pages=538–42 |year=2000 |pmid=11063954 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid2589303">{{cite journal |vauthors=Feskens EJ, Kromhout D |title=Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study |journal=Am. J. Epidemiol. |volume=130 |issue=6 |pages=1101–8 |year=1989 |pmid=2589303 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid7888928">{{cite journal |vauthors=Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC |title=Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men |journal=BMJ |volume=310 |issue=6979 |pages=555–9 |year=1995 |pmid=7888928 |pmc=2548937 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid16186287">{{cite journal |vauthors=Foy CG, Bell RA, Farmer DF, Goff DC, Wagenknecht LE |title=Smoking and incidence of diabetes among U.S. adults: findings from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study |journal=Diabetes Care |volume=28 |issue=10 |pages=2501–7 |year=2005 |pmid=16186287 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="CichoszJensen2020">{{cite journal|last1=Cichosz|first1=Simon Lebech|last2=Jensen|first2=Morten Hasselstrøm|last3=Hejlesen|first3=Ole|title=Associations between smoking, glucose metabolism and lipid levels: A cross-sectional study|journal=Journal of Diabetes and its Complications|year=2020|pages=107649|issn=10568727|doi=10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2020.107649}}</ref>
**Result of a [[cross-sectional study]] using data from [[National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey]], from 2005 to 2014, showed opposing data, demonstrated lower [[oral glucose tolerance test]] ([[OGTT]]) in smokers. Furthermore this study showed higher level of [[triglyceride]] and [[Low density lipoprotein|LDL-cholesterol]] and lower level of [[High density lipoprotein|HDL]] in smokers.
+
***[[Smoking]] may impair [[insulin]] sensitivity and has been found to increase blood [[glucose]] levels following an [[oral glucose tolerance test]] ([[OGTT]]).
*Lack of exercise: <ref name="pmid26954518">{{cite journal |vauthors=Crump C, Sundquist J, Winkleby MA, Sieh W, Sundquist K |title=Physical Fitness Among Swedish Military Conscripts and Long-Term Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cohort Study |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=164 |issue=9 |pages=577–84 |year=2016 |pmid=26954518 |pmc=4861045 |doi=10.7326/M15-2002 |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20189">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
***Result of a [[cross-sectional study]] using data from [[National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey]], from 2005 to 2014, showed opposing data, demonstrated lower [[oral glucose tolerance test]] ([[OGTT]]) in smokers. Furthermore this study showed higher level of [[triglyceride]] and [[Low density lipoprotein|LDL-cholesterol]] and lower level of [[High density lipoprotein|HDL]] in smokers.
**A lack of exercise, even without weight gain, is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.
+
**Lack of exercise: <ref name="pmid26954518">{{cite journal |vauthors=Crump C, Sundquist J, Winkleby MA, Sieh W, Sundquist K |title=Physical Fitness Among Swedish Military Conscripts and Long-Term Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cohort Study |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=164 |issue=9 |pages=577–84 |year=2016 |pmid=26954518 |pmc=4861045 |doi=10.7326/M15-2002 |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20189">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
**Sedentary life style and long hours of television watching have been reported as risk factors of diabetes mellitus type 2.
+
***A lack of exercise, even without [[weight gain]], is associated with an increased risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
*Dietary habits: <ref name="pmid7888928" /><ref name="pmid15328324">{{cite journal |vauthors=Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB |title=Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women |journal=JAMA |volume=292 |issue=8 |pages=927–34 |year=2004 |pmid=15328324 |doi=10.1001/jama.292.8.927 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17513405">{{cite journal |vauthors=Montonen J, Järvinen R, Knekt P, Heliövaara M, Reunanen A |title=Consumption of sweetened beverages and intakes of fructose and glucose predict type 2 diabetes occurrence |journal=J. Nutr. |volume=137 |issue=6 |pages=1447–54 |year=2007 |pmid=17513405 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid23620057">{{cite journal |vauthors=Romaguera D, Norat T, Wark PA, Vergnaud AC, Schulze MB, van Woudenbergh GJ, Drogan D, Amiano P, Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Balkau B, Barricarte A, Beulens JW, Clavel-Chapelon F, Crispim SP, Fagherazzi G, Franks PW, Grote VA, Huybrechts I, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rolandsson O, Sacerdote C, Sieri S, Slimani N, Spijkerman AM, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van den Berg SW, Wermeling PR, Zamara-Ros R, Feskens EJ, Langenberg C, Sharp SJ, Forouhi NG, Riboli E, Wareham NJ |title=Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct |journal=Diabetologia |volume=56 |issue=7 |pages=1520–30 |year=2013 |pmid=23620057 |doi=10.1007/s00125-013-2899-8 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid26199070">{{cite journal |vauthors=Imamura F, O'Connor L, Ye Z, Mursu J, Hayashino Y, Bhupathiraju SN, Forouhi NG |title=Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction |journal=BMJ |volume=351 |issue= |pages=h3576 |year=2015 |pmid=26199070 |pmc=4510779 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid11827496">{{cite journal |vauthors=van Dam RM, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB |title=Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=136 |issue=3 |pages=201–9 |year=2002 |pmid=11827496 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20182">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref><ref name="pmid21788627">{{cite journal |vauthors=Romaguera D, Guevara M, Norat T, Langenberg C, Forouhi NG, Sharp S, Slimani N, Schulze MB, Buijsse B, Buckland G, Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Moreno-Iribas MC, Bendinelli B, Grioni S, van der Schouw YT, Arriola L, Beulens JW, Boeing H, Clavel-Chapelon F, Cottet V, Crowe FL, de Lauzon-Guillan B, Franks PW, Gonzalez C, Hallmans G, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw K, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palla L, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rolandsson O, Romieu I, Sacerdote C, Spijkerman AM, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van der AD, Feskens EJ, Riboli E, Wareham NJ |title=Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project |journal=Diabetes Care |volume=34 |issue=9 |pages=1913–8 |year=2011 |pmid=21788627 |pmc=3161259 |doi=10.2337/dc11-0891 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid12197996">{{cite journal |vauthors=Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC |title=Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men |journal=Am. J. Clin. Nutr. |volume=76 |issue=3 |pages=535–40 |year=2002 |pmid=12197996 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17760498">{{cite journal |vauthors=de Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM |title=Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review |journal=PLoS Med. |volume=4 |issue=8 |pages=e261 |year=2007 |pmid=17760498 |pmc=1952203 |doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040261 |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20183">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref><ref name="pmid15998896">{{cite journal |vauthors=van Dam RM, Hu FB |title=Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review |journal=JAMA |volume=294 |issue=1 |pages=97–104 |year=2005 |pmid=15998896 |doi=10.1001/jama.294.1.97 |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20184">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou2018">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
***Sedentary life style and long hours of television watching have been reported as [[Risk factor|risk factors]] of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
**[[Alcohol]] consumption: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk.
+
**Dietary habits: <ref name="pmid7888928" /><ref name="pmid15328324">{{cite journal |vauthors=Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB |title=Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women |journal=JAMA |volume=292 |issue=8 |pages=927–34 |year=2004 |pmid=15328324 |doi=10.1001/jama.292.8.927 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17513405">{{cite journal |vauthors=Montonen J, Järvinen R, Knekt P, Heliövaara M, Reunanen A |title=Consumption of sweetened beverages and intakes of fructose and glucose predict type 2 diabetes occurrence |journal=J. Nutr. |volume=137 |issue=6 |pages=1447–54 |year=2007 |pmid=17513405 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid23620057">{{cite journal |vauthors=Romaguera D, Norat T, Wark PA, Vergnaud AC, Schulze MB, van Woudenbergh GJ, Drogan D, Amiano P, Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Balkau B, Barricarte A, Beulens JW, Clavel-Chapelon F, Crispim SP, Fagherazzi G, Franks PW, Grote VA, Huybrechts I, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rolandsson O, Sacerdote C, Sieri S, Slimani N, Spijkerman AM, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van den Berg SW, Wermeling PR, Zamara-Ros R, Feskens EJ, Langenberg C, Sharp SJ, Forouhi NG, Riboli E, Wareham NJ |title=Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct |journal=Diabetologia |volume=56 |issue=7 |pages=1520–30 |year=2013 |pmid=23620057 |doi=10.1007/s00125-013-2899-8 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid26199070">{{cite journal |vauthors=Imamura F, O'Connor L, Ye Z, Mursu J, Hayashino Y, Bhupathiraju SN, Forouhi NG |title=Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction |journal=BMJ |volume=351 |issue= |pages=h3576 |year=2015 |pmid=26199070 |pmc=4510779 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid11827496">{{cite journal |vauthors=van Dam RM, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB |title=Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=136 |issue=3 |pages=201–9 |year=2002 |pmid=11827496 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20182">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref><ref name="pmid21788627">{{cite journal |vauthors=Romaguera D, Guevara M, Norat T, Langenberg C, Forouhi NG, Sharp S, Slimani N, Schulze MB, Buijsse B, Buckland G, Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Moreno-Iribas MC, Bendinelli B, Grioni S, van der Schouw YT, Arriola L, Beulens JW, Boeing H, Clavel-Chapelon F, Cottet V, Crowe FL, de Lauzon-Guillan B, Franks PW, Gonzalez C, Hallmans G, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw K, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palla L, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rolandsson O, Romieu I, Sacerdote C, Spijkerman AM, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van der AD, Feskens EJ, Riboli E, Wareham NJ |title=Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project |journal=Diabetes Care |volume=34 |issue=9 |pages=1913–8 |year=2011 |pmid=21788627 |pmc=3161259 |doi=10.2337/dc11-0891 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid12197996">{{cite journal |vauthors=Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC |title=Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men |journal=Am. J. Clin. Nutr. |volume=76 |issue=3 |pages=535–40 |year=2002 |pmid=12197996 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17760498">{{cite journal |vauthors=de Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM |title=Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review |journal=PLoS Med. |volume=4 |issue=8 |pages=e261 |year=2007 |pmid=17760498 |pmc=1952203 |doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040261 |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20183">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref><ref name="pmid15998896">{{cite journal |vauthors=van Dam RM, Hu FB |title=Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review |journal=JAMA |volume=294 |issue=1 |pages=97–104 |year=2005 |pmid=15998896 |doi=10.1001/jama.294.1.97 |url=}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou20184">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref><ref name="NerurkarBellou2018">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
**Western diet and sugar-sweetened beverages: A Western diet is rich in red and processed meat, high fat dairy products, as well as sugar and sweets. This type of diet and beverages high in sugar content are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.
+
***[[Alcohol]] consumption: Moderate [[alcohol]] consumption is associated with a lower risk.
**Mediterranean diet: Diets rich in [[Fruit|fruits]], [[vegetables]] and [[whole grains]] are associated with a decreased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2.
+
***Western diet and sugar-sweetened beverages: A Western diet is rich in red and processed meat, high fat dairy products, as well as sugar and sweets. This type of diet and beverages high in sugar content are associated with an increased risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
**[[Coffee]] consumption: Increased [[coffee]] consumption is associated with a decreased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2. The risk is lowest among people who consume more than 6 cups per day.
+
***Mediterranean diet: Diets rich in [[Fruit|fruits]], [[vegetables]] and [[whole grains]] are associated with a decreased risk of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|diabetes mellitus type 2.]]
**Low intake if [[heme iron]] also increases the risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
+
***[[Coffee]] consumption: Increased [[coffee]] consumption is associated with a decreased risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]]. The risk is lowest among people who consume more than 6 cups per day.
*Drugs:
+
***Low intake if [[heme iron]] also increases the risk of [[diabetes mellitus type 2]].
**[[Desogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol]]
+
**Drugs:
**[[Dexamethasone]]
+
***[[Desogestrel and Ethinyl Estradiol]]
**[[Estropipate]]
+
***[[Dexamethasone]]
**[[goserelin]]
+
***[[Estropipate]]
**[[Indinavir]]
+
***[[goserelin]]
**[[interferon alfacon-1]]
+
***[[Indinavir]]
**[[Pasireotide]]
+
***[[interferon alfacon-1]]
**[[Pegylated interferon alfa-2b]]
+
***[[Pasireotide]]
**[[Pergolide]]
+
***[[Pegylated interferon alfa-2b]]
**[[Ritonavir]]
+
***[[Pergolide]]
**[[Saquinavir mesylate]]
+
***[[Ritonavir]]
**[[Tipranavir]]
+
***[[Saquinavir mesylate]]
*Medical conditions: [[Gestational diabetes]], High [[systolic blood pressure]], [[Metabolic syndrome]] and [[Premature birth|Preterm birth]].<ref name="NerurkarBellou20188">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
***[[Tipranavir]]
*[[Air pollution]] and PM10<ref name="NerurkarBellou201810">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
**Medical conditions: [[Gestational diabetes]], High [[systolic blood pressure]], [[Metabolic syndrome]] and [[Premature birth|Preterm birth]].<ref name="NerurkarBellou20188">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
*A follow-up study in a population from the U.K. showed that class III homozygosity was related to higher risk for [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|type 2 diabetes]] in women, but not in men.<ref name="pmid15562019">{{cite journal| author=Meigs JB, Dupuis J, Herbert AG, Liu C, Wilson PW, Cupples LA| title=The insulin gene variable number tandem repeat and risk of type 2 diabetes in a population-based sample of families and unrelated men and women. | journal=J Clin Endocrinol Metab | year= 2005 | volume= 90 | issue= 2 | pages= 1137-43 | pmid=15562019 | doi=10.1210/jc.2004-1212 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15562019  }}</ref>
+
**[[Air pollution]] and Particulate Matter (PM10)<ref name="NerurkarBellou201810">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
*Biomarkers:  
+
**A follow-up study in a population from the U.K. showed that class III homozygosity was related to higher risk for [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|type 2 diabetes]] in women, but not in men.<ref name="pmid15562019">{{cite journal| author=Meigs JB, Dupuis J, Herbert AG, Liu C, Wilson PW, Cupples LA| title=The insulin gene variable number tandem repeat and risk of type 2 diabetes in a population-based sample of families and unrelated men and women. | journal=J Clin Endocrinol Metab | year= 2005 | volume= 90 | issue= 2 | pages= 1137-43 | pmid=15562019 | doi=10.1210/jc.2004-1212 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15562019  }}</ref>
**Elevation in the following biomarkers are related to higher chance of diabetes type 2: <ref name="NerurkarBellou20186">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>  
+
**Biomarkers:  
***[[Alanine transaminase]] ([[Alanine transaminase|ALT]])
+
***Elevation in the following biomarkers are related to higher chance of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|diabetes type 2]]: <ref name="NerurkarBellou20186">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>  
***[[Gamma-glutamyl transferase]] ([[Gamma-glutamyl transferase|GGT]])
+
****[[Alanine transaminase]] ([[Alanine transaminase|ALT]])
***[[Uric acid]]
+
****[[Gamma-glutamyl transferase]] ([[Gamma-glutamyl transferase|GGT]])
***[[C-reactive protein]] ([[C-reactive protein|CRP]])
+
****[[Uric acid]]
**Reduction in the following biomarkers are related to higher chance of diabetes type 2: <ref name="NerurkarBellou20187">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
+
****[[C-reactive protein]] ([[C-reactive protein|CRP]])
***[[Adiponectin]]
+
***Reduction in the following biomarkers are related to higher chance of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|diabetes type 2]]: <ref name="NerurkarBellou20187">{{cite journal|last1=Nerurkar|first1=Pratibha V.|last2=Bellou|first2=Vanesa|last3=Belbasis|first3=Lazaros|last4=Tzoulaki|first4=Ioanna|last5=Evangelou|first5=Evangelos|title=Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=13|issue=3|year=2018|pages=e0194127|issn=1932-6203|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0194127}}</ref>
***[[Vitamin D]]
+
****[[Adiponectin]]
*[[SARS-CoV-2]] (a subtype of [[coronavirus]] that causes [[COVID-19|coronavirus disease 2019]])
+
****[[Vitamin D]]
 +
**[[SARS-CoV-2]] (a subtype of [[coronavirus]] that causes [[COVID-19|coronavirus disease 2019]])
  
 
===Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Children===
 
===Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Children===
* Overweight (BMI>85th percentile for age and sex, weight for height> 85th percentile, or weight >120% of ideal for height)
+
*[[Overweight]] ([[Body mass index|BMI]]>85th percentile for age and sex, weight for height> 85th percentile, or weight >120% of ideal for height)
* Family history of type 2 diabetes in first or second degree relative
+
*[[Family history]] of [[Diabetes mellitus type 2|type 2 diabetes]] in first or second degree relative
* Ethnicity: Native American, African American, Latino, Asian American, Pacific Islander
+
*[[Ethnicity and health|Ethnicity]]: Native American, African American, Latino, Asian American, Pacific Islander
* Signs of [[insulin resistance]] or conditions associated with insulin resistance ([[acanthosis nigricans]], [[hypertension]], [[dyslipidemia]], [[polycystic ovary syndrome]], or small-for-gestational age birth weight)
+
* Signs of [[insulin resistance]] or conditions associated with [[insulin resistance]] ([[acanthosis nigricans]], [[hypertension]], [[dyslipidemia]], [[polycystic ovary syndrome]], or small-for-[[gestational age]] [[birth weight]])
* Maternal history of diabetes or [[GDM]] during the child’s gestation<ref name="pmid23264422">{{cite journal| author=American Diabetes Association| title=Standards of medical care in diabetes--2013. | journal=Diabetes Care | year= 2013 | volume= 36 Suppl 1 | issue=  | pages= S11-66 | pmid=23264422 | doi=10.2337/dc13-S011 | pmc=PMC3537269 | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23264422  }} </ref>
+
* Maternal history of [[diabetes]] or [[GDM]] during the child’s gestation<ref name="pmid23264422">{{cite journal| author=American Diabetes Association| title=Standards of medical care in diabetes--2013. | journal=Diabetes Care | year= 2013 | volume= 36 Suppl 1 | issue=  | pages= S11-66 | pmid=23264422 | doi=10.2337/dc13-S011 | pmc=PMC3537269 | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=23264422  }} </ref>
  
 
===HbA1c===
 
===HbA1c===
* A systematic review of HbA1c levels with future risk of developing diabetes by Zhang et al.<ref>{{Cite journal
+
* A [[systematic review]] of [[Glycosylated hemoglobin|HbA1c]] levels with future risk of developing [[diabetes]] by Zhang et al.<ref>{{Cite journal
 
| author = [[Xuanping Zhang]], [[Edward W. Gregg]], [[David F. Williamson]], [[Lawrence E. Barker]], [[William Thomas]], [[Kai McKeever Bullard]], [[Giuseppina Imperatore]], [[Desmond E. Williams]] & [[Ann L. Albright]]
 
| author = [[Xuanping Zhang]], [[Edward W. Gregg]], [[David F. Williamson]], [[Lawrence E. Barker]], [[William Thomas]], [[Kai McKeever Bullard]], [[Giuseppina Imperatore]], [[Desmond E. Williams]] & [[Ann L. Albright]]
 
  | title = A1C level and future risk of diabetes: a systematic review
 
  | title = A1C level and future risk of diabetes: a systematic review
Line 77: Line 78:
 
  | pmid = 20587727
 
  | pmid = 20587727
  
}}</ref> showed that the risk of diabetes increased steeply in patients with HbA1c levels across the range between 5 and 6.5%. It seems to be a better predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes than the fasting blood glucose test.
+
}}</ref> showed that the risk of [[diabetes]] increased steeply in patients with [[Glycosylated hemoglobin|HbA1c]] levels across the range between 5 and 6.5%. It seems to be a better predictor of [[Diabetes mellitus|diabetes]] and [[cardiovascular]] outcomes than the [[Blood glucose|fasting blood glucose]] test.
 
* The results of this study is tabulated below:
 
* The results of this study is tabulated below:
 
<table>
 
<table>
Line 96: Line 97:
 
|}
 
|}
  
* Also, the patients with HbA1c's more than 6% had a relative risk 20 times higher compared to those in lower HbA1c group (≤5%). Hence, the patients with HbA1c levels in the prediabetic range should be counselled about lifestyle modifications and weight reduction strategies in order to lower their risk. This should be followed with vigilant follow up visits and close scrutiny, particularly in high risk individuals.
+
* Also, the patients with [[Glycosylated hemoglobin|HbA1c]]'s more than 6% had a [[relative risk]] 20 times higher compared to those in lower [[Glycosylated hemoglobin|HbA1c]] group (≤5%). Hence, the patients with [[Glycosylated hemoglobin|HbA1c]] levels in the [[Prediabetes|prediabetic]] range should be counselled about lifestyle modifications and weight reduction strategies in order to lower their risk. This should be followed with vigilant follow up visits and close scrutiny, particularly in high risk individuals.
  
 
===Genetic Syndromes===
 
===Genetic Syndromes===
Various hereditary conditions may feature diabetes, for example [[myotonic dystrophy]] and [[Friedreich's ataxia]]. [[Wolfram's syndrome]] is an [[autosomal recessive]] [[neurodegenerative disorder]] that first becomes evident in childhood. It consists of [[diabetes insipidus]], [[diabetes mellitus]], [[optic atrophy]], and [[deafness]], hence the acronym DIDMOAD.<ref name="AMN">{{cite journal |author=Barrett TG |title=Mitochondrial diabetes, DIDMOAD and other inherited diabetes syndromes |journal=Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=15 |issue=3 |pages=325-43 |year=2001|pmid=11554774 |doi=10.1053/beem.2001.0149}}</ref>
+
 
 +
* Various hereditary conditions may feature [[diabetes]], for example [[myotonic dystrophy]] and [[Friedreich's ataxia]] and [[Wolfram's syndrome]].  
 +
* [[Wolfram's syndrome]] is an [[autosomal recessive]] [[neurodegenerative disorder]] that first becomes evident in childhood. It consists of [[diabetes insipidus]], [[diabetes mellitus]], [[optic atrophy]], and [[deafness]], hence the acronym DIDMOAD.<ref name="AMN">{{cite journal |author=Barrett TG |title=Mitochondrial diabetes, DIDMOAD and other inherited diabetes syndromes |journal=Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=15 |issue=3 |pages=325-43 |year=2001|pmid=11554774 |doi=10.1053/beem.2001.0149}}</ref>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

Latest revision as of 19:32, 2 August 2020

Diabetes mellitus main page

Diabetes mellitus type 2 Microchapters

Home

Patient information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical therapy

Life Style Modification
Pharmacotherapy
Glycemic Control

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dima Nimri, M.D. [2],Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [3]

Overview

Common risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes include: positive family history, certain ethnicity, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, aging, certain drugs (.eg. glucocorticoids) and certain medical conditions that may result in weight gain and inactivity.

Risk Factors

Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Children

HbA1c

HbA1c 5 year DM incidence rate
≤ 5% Around 0.1%
5.5 to 6% Between 9 to 25%
6 to 6.5% 25 to 50%
  • Also, the patients with HbA1c's more than 6% had a relative risk 20 times higher compared to those in lower HbA1c group (≤5%). Hence, the patients with HbA1c levels in the prediabetic range should be counselled about lifestyle modifications and weight reduction strategies in order to lower their risk. This should be followed with vigilant follow up visits and close scrutiny, particularly in high risk individuals.

Genetic Syndromes

References

  1. Scott RA, Langenberg C, Sharp SJ, Franks PW, Rolandsson O, Drogan D, van der Schouw YT, Ekelund U, Kerrison ND, Ardanaz E, Arriola L, Balkau B, Barricarte A, Barroso I, Bendinelli B, Beulens JW, Boeing H, de Lauzon-Guillain B, Deloukas P, Fagherazzi G, Gonzalez C, Griffin SJ, Groop LC, Halkjaer J, Huerta JM, Kaaks R, Khaw KT, Krogh V, Nilsson PM, Norat T, Overvad K, Panico S, Rodriguez-Suarez L, Romaguera D, Romieu I, Sacerdote C, Sánchez MJ, Spijkerman AM, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tumino R, van der A DL, Wark PA, McCarthy MI, Riboli E, Wareham NJ (2013). "The link between family history and risk of type 2 diabetes is not explained by anthropometric, lifestyle or genetic risk factors: the EPIC-InterAct study". Diabetologia. 56 (1): 60–9. doi:10.1007/s00125-012-2715-x. PMC 4038917. PMID 23052052.
  2. Meigs JB, Cupples LA, Wilson PW (2000). "Parental transmission of type 2 diabetes: the Framingham Offspring Study". Diabetes. 49 (12): 2201–7. PMID 11118026.
  3. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  4. Selvin E, Parrinello CM, Sacks DB, Coresh J (2014). "Trends in prevalence and control of diabetes in the United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2010". Ann. Intern. Med. 160 (8): 517–25. doi:10.7326/M13-2411. PMC 4442608. PMID 24733192.
  5. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS (2003). "Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001". JAMA. 289 (1): 76–9. PMID 12503980.
  6. Nguyen NT, Nguyen XM, Lane J, Wang P (2011). "Relationship between obesity and diabetes in a US adult population: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2006". Obes Surg. 21 (3): 351–5. doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0335-4. PMC 3040808. PMID 21128002.
  7. Friedman JE, Dohm GL, Leggett-Frazier N, Elton CW, Tapscott EB, Pories WP, Caro JF (1992). "Restoration of insulin responsiveness in skeletal muscle of morbidly obese patients after weight loss. Effect on muscle glucose transport and glucose transporter GLUT4". J. Clin. Invest. 89 (2): 701–5. doi:10.1172/JCI115638. PMC 442905. PMID 1737857.
  8. Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1994). "Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men". Diabetes Care. 17 (9): 961–9. PMID 7988316.
  9. Huttunen, R; Syrjänen, J (2012). "Obesity and the risk and outcome of infection". International Journal of Obesity. 37 (3): 333–340. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.62. ISSN 0307-0565.
  10. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  11. Manson JE, Ajani UA, Liu S, Nathan DM, Hennekens CH (2000). "A prospective study of cigarette smoking and the incidence of diabetes mellitus among US male physicians". Am. J. Med. 109 (7): 538–42. PMID 11063954.
  12. Feskens EJ, Kromhout D (1989). "Cardiovascular risk factors and the 25-year incidence of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged men. The Zutphen Study". Am. J. Epidemiol. 130 (6): 1101–8. PMID 2589303.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Rimm EB, Chan J, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1995). "Prospective study of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and the risk of diabetes in men". BMJ. 310 (6979): 555–9. PMC 2548937. PMID 7888928.
  14. Foy CG, Bell RA, Farmer DF, Goff DC, Wagenknecht LE (2005). "Smoking and incidence of diabetes among U.S. adults: findings from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study". Diabetes Care. 28 (10): 2501–7. PMID 16186287.
  15. Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Jensen, Morten Hasselstrøm; Hejlesen, Ole (2020). "Associations between smoking, glucose metabolism and lipid levels: A cross-sectional study". Journal of Diabetes and its Complications: 107649. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2020.107649. ISSN 1056-8727.
  16. Crump C, Sundquist J, Winkleby MA, Sieh W, Sundquist K (2016). "Physical Fitness Among Swedish Military Conscripts and Long-Term Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cohort Study". Ann. Intern. Med. 164 (9): 577–84. doi:10.7326/M15-2002. PMC 4861045. PMID 26954518.
  17. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  18. Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB (2004). "Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women". JAMA. 292 (8): 927–34. doi:10.1001/jama.292.8.927. PMID 15328324.
  19. Montonen J, Järvinen R, Knekt P, Heliövaara M, Reunanen A (2007). "Consumption of sweetened beverages and intakes of fructose and glucose predict type 2 diabetes occurrence". J. Nutr. 137 (6): 1447–54. PMID 17513405.
  20. Romaguera D, Norat T, Wark PA, Vergnaud AC, Schulze MB, van Woudenbergh GJ, Drogan D, Amiano P, Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Balkau B, Barricarte A, Beulens JW, Clavel-Chapelon F, Crispim SP, Fagherazzi G, Franks PW, Grote VA, Huybrechts I, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw KT, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rolandsson O, Sacerdote C, Sieri S, Slimani N, Spijkerman AM, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van den Berg SW, Wermeling PR, Zamara-Ros R, Feskens EJ, Langenberg C, Sharp SJ, Forouhi NG, Riboli E, Wareham NJ (2013). "Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct". Diabetologia. 56 (7): 1520–30. doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2899-8. PMID 23620057.
  21. Imamura F, O'Connor L, Ye Z, Mursu J, Hayashino Y, Bhupathiraju SN, Forouhi NG (2015). "Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction". BMJ. 351: h3576. PMC 4510779. PMID 26199070.
  22. van Dam RM, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB (2002). "Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men". Ann. Intern. Med. 136 (3): 201–9. PMID 11827496.
  23. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  24. Romaguera D, Guevara M, Norat T, Langenberg C, Forouhi NG, Sharp S, Slimani N, Schulze MB, Buijsse B, Buckland G, Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Moreno-Iribas MC, Bendinelli B, Grioni S, van der Schouw YT, Arriola L, Beulens JW, Boeing H, Clavel-Chapelon F, Cottet V, Crowe FL, de Lauzon-Guillan B, Franks PW, Gonzalez C, Hallmans G, Kaaks R, Key TJ, Khaw K, Nilsson P, Overvad K, Palla L, Palli D, Panico S, Quirós JR, Rolandsson O, Romieu I, Sacerdote C, Spijkerman AM, Teucher B, Tjonneland A, Tormo MJ, Tumino R, van der AD, Feskens EJ, Riboli E, Wareham NJ (2011). "Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project". Diabetes Care. 34 (9): 1913–8. doi:10.2337/dc11-0891. PMC 3161259. PMID 21788627.
  25. Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC (2002). "Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 76 (3): 535–40. PMID 12197996.
  26. de Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM (2007). "Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review". PLoS Med. 4 (8): e261. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040261. PMC 1952203. PMID 17760498.
  27. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  28. van Dam RM, Hu FB (2005). "Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review". JAMA. 294 (1): 97–104. doi:10.1001/jama.294.1.97. PMID 15998896.
  29. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  30. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  31. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  32. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  33. Meigs JB, Dupuis J, Herbert AG, Liu C, Wilson PW, Cupples LA (2005). "The insulin gene variable number tandem repeat and risk of type 2 diabetes in a population-based sample of families and unrelated men and women". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90 (2): 1137–43. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1212. PMID 15562019.
  34. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  35. Nerurkar, Pratibha V.; Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Evangelou, Evangelos (2018). "Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exposure-wide umbrella review of meta-analyses". PLOS ONE. 13 (3): e0194127. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0194127. ISSN 1932-6203.
  36. American Diabetes Association (2013). "Standards of medical care in diabetes--2013". Diabetes Care. 36 Suppl 1: S11–66. doi:10.2337/dc13-S011. PMC 3537269. PMID 23264422.
  37. Xuanping Zhang, Edward W. Gregg, David F. Williamson, Lawrence E. Barker, William Thomas, Kai McKeever Bullard, Giuseppina Imperatore, Desmond E. Williams & Ann L. Albright (2010). "A1C level and future risk of diabetes: a systematic review". Diabetes care. 33 (7): 1665–1673. doi:10.2337/dc09-1939. PMID 20587727. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  38. Barrett TG (2001). "Mitochondrial diabetes, DIDMOAD and other inherited diabetes syndromes". Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 15 (3): 325–43. doi:10.1053/beem.2001.0149. PMID 11554774.