Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study

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Congestive Heart Failure Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Systolic Dysfunction
Diastolic Dysfunction


Differentiating Congestive heart failure from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Clinical Assessment

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray

Cardiac MRI


Exercise Stress Test

Myocardial Viability Studies

Cardiac Catheterization

Other Imaging Studies

Other Diagnostic Studies


Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring

Medical Therapy:

Acute Pharmacotherapy
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFpEF
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFrEF
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Aldosterone Antagonists
Beta Blockers
Ca Channel Blockers
Positive Inotropics
Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Nutritional Supplements
Hormonal Therapies
Drugs to Avoid
Drug Interactions
Treatment of underlying causes
Associated conditions

Exercise Training

Surgical Therapy:

Biventricular Pacing or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
Implantation of Intracardiac Defibrillator
Cardiac Surgery
Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs)
Cardiac Transplantation

ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations

Initial and Serial Evaluation of the HF Patient
Hospitalized Patient
Patients With a Prior MI
Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention
Surgical/Percutaneous/Transcather Interventional Treatments of HF
Patients at high risk for developing heart failure (Stage A)
Patients with cardiac structural abnormalities or remodeling who have not developed heart failure symptoms (Stage B)
Patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure (Stage C)
Patients with refractory end-stage heart failure (Stage D)
Coordinating Care for Patients With Chronic HF
Quality Metrics/Performance Measures

Implementation of Practice Guidelines

Congestive heart failure end-of-life considerations

Specific Groups:

Special Populations
Patients who have concomitant disorders
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Patient with CHF
NSTEMI with Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock

Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study

CDC on Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study

Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study in the news

Blogs on Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study

Directions to Hospitals Treating Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study

Risk calculators and risk factors for Congestive heart failure myocardial viability study

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Sara Zand, M.D.[2] Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [3]


Single-photon emission CT (SPECT) can also be used to assess myocardial ischemia and viability, myocardial inflammation or infiltration. Scintigraphy with technetium (Tc)-labeled bisphosphonate has shown high sensitivity and specificity for imaging cardiac transthyretin amyloid.

Myocardial Viability Studies

Common imaging modalities to assess myocardial viability include:

2021 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines (DO NOT EDIT) [1]

Class IIb
"Non-invasive stress imaging (CMR, stress echocardiography, SPECT, PET) may be considered for the assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability in patients with CAD who are considered suitable for coronary revascularization. (Level of Evidence: B) "
". Exercise testing may be considered to detect reversible myocardial ischemia and investigate the cause of dyspnea(Level of Evidence: C) "

2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Heart Failure Guideline (DO NOT EDIT) [2]

Class IIa
"6. In patients with HF, an evaluation for possible ischemic heart disease can be useful to identify the cause and guide management. [3][4][5][6] (Level of Evidence:B-NR) "

Related Chapters

External Link


  1. McDonagh TA, Metra M, Adamo M, Gardner RS, Baumbach A, Böhm M, Burri H, Butler J, Čelutkienė J, Chioncel O, Cleland J, Coats A, Crespo-Leiro MG, Farmakis D, Gilard M, Heymans S, Hoes AW, Jaarsma T, Jankowska EA, Lainscak M, Lam C, Lyon AR, McMurray J, Mebazaa A, Mindham R, Muneretto C, Francesco Piepoli M, Price S, Rosano G, Ruschitzka F, Kathrine Skibelund A (September 2021). "2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure". Eur Heart J. 42 (36): 3599–3726. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehab368. PMID 34447992 Check |pmid= value (help). Vancouver style error: initials (help)
  2. Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM; et al. (2022). "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 145 (18): e876–e894. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001062. PMID 35363500 Check |pmid= value (help).
  3. Elhendy A, Sozzi F, van Domburg RT, Bax JJ, Schinkel AF, Roelandt JR; et al. (2005). "Effect of myocardial ischemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography on cardiac mortality in patients with heart failure secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy". Am J Cardiol. 96 (4): 469–73. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.04.004. PMID 16098295.
  4. Miller WL, Hodge DO, Tointon SK, Rodeheffer RJ, Nelson SM, Gibbons RJ (2004). "Relationship of myocardial perfusion imaging findings to outcome of patients with heart failure and suspected ischemic heart disease". Am Heart J. 147 (4): 714–20. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2003.10.045. PMID 15077089.
  5. Chow BJW, Coyle D, Hossain A, Laine M, Hanninen H, Ukkonen H; et al. (2021). "Computed tomography coronary angiography for patients with heart failure (CTA-HF): a randomized controlled trial (IMAGE-HF 1C)". Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 22 (9): 1083–1090. doi:10.1093/ehjci/jeaa109. PMID 32588042 Check |pmid= value (help).
  6. Ferreira JP, Rossignol P, Demissei B, Sharma A, Girerd N, Anker SD; et al. (2018). "Coronary angiography in worsening heart failure: determinants, findings and prognostic implications". Heart. 104 (7): 606–613. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311750. PMID 28798192.
  7. Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM, Deswal A, Drazner MH, Dunlay SM, Evers LR, Fang JC, Fedson SE, Fonarow GC, Hayek SS, Hernandez AF, Khazanie P, Kittleson MM, Lee CS, Link MS, Milano CA, Nnacheta LC, Sandhu AT, Stevenson LW, Vardeny O, Vest AR, Yancy CW (May 2022). "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 145 (18): e895–e1032. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001063. PMID 35363499 Check |pmid= value (help).

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