Clostridium

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Clostridium
SEM micrograph of Clostridium difficile colonies from a stool sample.
SEM micrograph of Clostridium difficile colonies from a stool sample.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Clostridia
Order: Clostridiales
Family: Clostridiaceae
Genus: Clostridium
Prazmowski 1880
Species

C. acetobutylicum
Clostridium aerotolerans
C. beijerinckii
C. botulinum
Clostridium butyricum
Clostridium colicanis
C. difficile
Clostridium formicaceticum
Clostridium ljungdahlii
Clostridium laramie
Clostridium novyi
C. perfringens
Clostridium piliforme
C. sordellii
Clostridium sporogenes
C. tetani
C. tyrobutyricum

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List of terms related to Clostridium

Clostridium is a large genus of Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the Firmicutes. They are obligate anaerobes capable of producing endospores.[1] Individual cells are rod-shaped, which gives them their name, from the Greek kloster or spindle. These characteristics traditionally defined the genus, but they are not phylogenetically significant; many species originally classified as Clostridium have been reclassified in other genera.

Pathology

Clostridium includes common free-living bacteria as well as important pathogens.[2] There are four main species responsible for disease in humans:

Honey sometimes contains Clostridium bacteria which may cause infant botulism in humans one year old and under. Infant botulism causes the infant to produce botulinium toxin, which eventually paralyzes the breathing muscles.[7] C. sordellii has been linked to the deaths of more than a dozen women after childbirth.

Commercial uses

C. thermocellum can utilize lignocellulosic waste and generate ethanol, thus making it a possible candidate for use in ethanol production. It also has no oxygen requirement and is thermophilic, reducing cooling cost. C. acetobutylicum, also known as the Weizmann organism, which was first used by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone and biobutanol from starch in 1916 for the production of gunpowder and TNT.

The anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.[8]

References

  1. Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed. ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
  2. Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Clostridia: Sporeforming Anaerobic Bacilli in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.) (4th ed. ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  3. Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Botulism and Clostridium botulinum in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.) (4th ed. ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  4. Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Pseudomembranous Colitis, and Clostridium difficile in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.) (4th ed. ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  5. Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Other Pathogenic Clostridia Food Poisoning and Clostridium perfringens in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.) (4th ed. ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. Text " 0-9631172-1-1 " ignored (help)
  6. Wells CL, Wilkins TD (1996). Tetanus and Clostribium tetani in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.) (4th ed. ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
  7. Tanzi MG, Gabay MP (2002). "Association between honey consumption and infant botulism". Pharmacotherapy. 22 (11): 1479–83. PMID 12432974.
  8. "Providing for a Sustainable Energy Future". Bioengineering Resources, inc. Unknown parameter |accessdaymonth= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |accessyear= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help)

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ca:Clostridi cs:Clostridium de:Clostridien hr:Clostridium it:Clostridium nl:Clostridium sr:Клостридије uk:Clostridium




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