Difference between revisions of "Cardiogenic shock causes"

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(Common Causes)
 
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===Common Causes===
 
===Common Causes===
The most common causes of cardiogenic shock remain:<ref name="ReynoldsHochman2008">{{cite journal|last1=Reynolds|first1=H. R.|last2=Hochman|first2=J. S.|title=Cardiogenic Shock: Current Concepts and Improving Outcomes|journal=Circulation|volume=117|issue=5|year=2008|pages=686–697|issn=0009-7322|doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.613596}}</ref>
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The most common causes of [[cardiogenic shock]] remain:<ref name="ReynoldsHochman2008">{{cite journal|last1=Reynolds|first1=H. R.|last2=Hochman|first2=J. S.|title=Cardiogenic Shock: Current Concepts and Improving Outcomes|journal=Circulation|volume=117|issue=5|year=2008|pages=686–697|issn=0009-7322|doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.613596}}</ref>
 
*[[Myocardial infarction]]<ref name="pmid29300230">{{cite journal |vauthors=Acharya D |title=Predictors of Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock |journal=Cardiol Rev |volume=26 |issue=5 |pages=255–266 |date=2018 |pmid=29300230 |pmc=6082598 |doi=10.1097/CRD.0000000000000190 |url=}}</ref>
 
*[[Myocardial infarction]]<ref name="pmid29300230">{{cite journal |vauthors=Acharya D |title=Predictors of Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock |journal=Cardiol Rev |volume=26 |issue=5 |pages=255–266 |date=2018 |pmid=29300230 |pmc=6082598 |doi=10.1097/CRD.0000000000000190 |url=}}</ref>
 
*[[Left ventricular failure]]<ref name="pmid24930078">{{cite journal |vauthors=Sánchez Marteles M, Urrutia A |title=[Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock] |language=Spanish; Castilian |journal=Med Clin (Barc) |volume=142 Suppl 1 |issue= |pages=14–9 |date=March 2014 |pmid=24930078 |doi=10.1016/S0025-7753(14)70077-6 |url=}}</ref>
 
*[[Left ventricular failure]]<ref name="pmid24930078">{{cite journal |vauthors=Sánchez Marteles M, Urrutia A |title=[Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock] |language=Spanish; Castilian |journal=Med Clin (Barc) |volume=142 Suppl 1 |issue= |pages=14–9 |date=March 2014 |pmid=24930078 |doi=10.1016/S0025-7753(14)70077-6 |url=}}</ref>

Latest revision as of 16:45, 16 January 2020

Cardiogenic Shock Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Cardiogenic shock from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Cardiogenic shock causes On the Web

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Risk calculators and risk factors for Cardiogenic shock causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: João André Alves Silva, M.D. [2] Syed Musadiq Ali M.B.B.S.[3]

Overview

The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is acute myocardial infarction with left ventricular dysfunction. Less commonly, right ventricular myocardial infarction can lead to cardiogenic shock. Other causes of cardiogenic shock include mechanical injuries such as acute valvular regurgitation or rupture, free wall rupture, and ventricular septum rupture.

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Cardiogenic Shock is a life-threatening condition and must be treated as such irrespective of the causes. Life-threatening conditions may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

The most common causes of cardiogenic shock remain:[1]

However, other likewise important causes must be identified. These may be classified according to their nature into:

  • Arrhythmic
  • Mechanical
  • Myopathic
  • Pharmacologic

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Acute aortic perforation, Acute aortic syndrome, Acute coronary syndrome, Acute myocardial infarction, Acute pulmonary embolism, Acute stent thrombosis, Acute valvular regurgitation, Anterior myocardial dysfuntion, Aortic dissection, Aortic insufficiency, Aortic regurgitation, Aortic stenosis, Apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmias, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Atrial myxoma, Atrioventricular block, Bezold-Jarisch reflex, Cardiac tamponade, Chordal rupture, Coarctation of the aorta, Compression of the heart, Congenital lesions, Congestive heart failure, Constrictive pericarditis, Coronary artery bypass grafting, Coronary artery disease, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Endocarditis, Excess ventricular wall stress, Free wall rupture, Hemorrhagic pericardial effusion, Hypertensive crisis, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypophosphatemia, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, Inferior myocardial infarction, Inferoposterior infarction, Interventricular septum rupture, Left ventricle failure, Left ventricular free wall rupture, Mechanical obstruction, Mitral regurgitation, Mitral stenosis, Multivessel coronary artery disease, Myocardial disease, Myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, Myopericarditis, Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), Papillary muscle dysfunction, Papillary muscle rupture, Pericardial disease, Pericardial effusion, Pericardial tamponade, Pneumothorax, Prior valvular disease, Pulmonary embolism, Retrograde dissection of ascending aorta, Right ventricle infarction, Right ventricular failure, Rupture of chordae tendineae, Ruptured ventricular free wall aneurysm, Septic shock with myocardial depression, Severe cardiomyopathy, Severe pulmonary hypertension, Sinus bradycardia, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Stress-induced cardiomyopathy, Subendocardial ischemia, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Tension pneumothorax, Three vessel coronary disease, Unsuspected coronary dissection, Unsuspected coronary perforation, Valvular defect, Valvular disease, Vasodilators, Venodilators, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular septal defect, Ventricular septal rupture, Ventricular tachycardia
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Anaphylaxis, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Diuretics, Morphine, Nitrates, Vasodilators, Venodilators
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine No underlying causes
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic No underlying causes
Genetic Congenital lesions, Valvular defect, Ventricular septal defect
Hematologic Hypophosphatemia
Iatrogenic Acute aortic perforation, Acute stent thrombosis, Anaphylaxis, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Coronary artery bypass grafting, Diuretics, Iatrogenic, Morphine, Nitrates, Unsuspected coronary dissection, Unsuspected coronary perforation, Vasodilators, Venodilators
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic Apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, Bezold-Jarisch reflex, Sinus bradycardia, Stress-induced cardiomyopathy, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
Nutritional/Metabolic No underlying causes
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Atrial myxoma
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Acute pulmonary embolism, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, Pneumothorax, Pulmonary embolism, Severe pulmonary hypertension, Tension pneumothorax
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Anaphylaxis, Constrictive pericarditis, Endocarditis, Myocarditis, Myopericarditis, Septic shock with myocardial depression
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Acute aortic perforation, Aortic dissection, Chordal rupture, Compression of the heart, Papillary muscle rupture, Pericardial tamponade, Retrograde dissection of ascending aorta, Rupture of chordae tendineae, Trauma, Ventricular septal rupture
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Acute aortic syndrome, Acute coronary syndrome, Acute myocardial infarction, Acute pulmonary embolism, Acute valvular regurgitation, Anterior myocardial dysfuntion, Aortic dissection, Aortic insufficiency, Aortic regurgitation, Aortic stenosis, Apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmias, Atrial fibrillation, Cardiac tamponade, Chordal rupture, Coarctation of the aorta, Compression of the heart, Congestive heart failure, Coronary artery disease, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Endocarditis, Excess ventricular wall stress, Free wall rupture, Hemorrhagic pericardial effusion, Hypertensive crisis, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypophosphatemia, Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, Inferior myocardial infarction, Inferoposterior infarction, Interventricular septum rupture, Left ventricle failure, Left ventricular free wall rupture, Mechanical obstruction, Mitral regurgitation, Mitral stenosis, Multivessel coronary artery disease, Myocardial disease, Myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, Myopericarditis, Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), Papillary muscle dysfunction, Papillary muscle rupture, Pericardial disease, Pericardial effusion, Pericardial tamponade, Pneumothorax, Prior valvular disease, Pulmonary embolism, Retrograde dissection of ascending aorta, Right ventricle infarction, Right ventricular failure, Rupture of chordae tendineae, Ruptured ventricular free wall aneurysm, Septic shock with myocardial depression, Severe cardiomyopathy, Severe pulmonary hypertension, Sinus bradycardia, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Stress-induced cardiomyopathy, Subendocardial ischemia, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Tension pneumothorax, Three vessel coronary disease, Valvular defect, Valvular disease, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular septal defect, Ventricular septal rupture, Ventricular tachycardia

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Causes of Cardiogenic Shock Classified According to Underlying Pathophysiologic Mechanism

Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

  • Excess wall stress

Obstruction of Left Ventricular Outflow and Increased After Load

Reversal of Flow into the Left Ventricle

Inadequate Left Ventricular Filling due to Mechanical Causes

Inadequate Left Ventricular Filling due to Inadequate Filling Time

Conduction Abnormalities

Mechanical Defect

Right Ventricular Failure

Iatrogenic

Miscellaneous

References

  1. Reynolds, H. R.; Hochman, J. S. (2008). "Cardiogenic Shock: Current Concepts and Improving Outcomes". Circulation. 117 (5): 686–697. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.613596. ISSN 0009-7322.
  2. Acharya D (2018). "Predictors of Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock". Cardiol Rev. 26 (5): 255–266. doi:10.1097/CRD.0000000000000190. PMC 6082598. PMID 29300230.
  3. Sánchez Marteles M, Urrutia A (March 2014). "[Acute heart failure: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock]". Med Clin (Barc) (in Spanish; Castilian). 142 Suppl 1: 14–9. doi:10.1016/S0025-7753(14)70077-6. PMID 24930078.
  4. Kang S, An S, Yu HM, Kim J, Kim SH, Kim HJ, Chung SM (November 2013). "Cardiogenic shock accompanied by dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and myocardial bridging after transient complete atrioventricular block mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a case report". BMC Res Notes. 6: 478. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-478. PMC 3874663. PMID 24252345.
  5. Eldar M, Sievner Z, Goldbourt U, Reicher-Reiss H, Kaplinsky E, Behar S (July 1992). "Primary ventricular tachycardia in acute myocardial infarction: clinical characteristics and mortality. The SPRINT Study Group". Ann. Intern. Med. 117 (1): 31–6. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-117-1-31. PMID 1596045.
  6. Burton LV, Beier K. PMID 29763151. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. Sherrid MV, Swistel DG, Balaran S (December 2018). "Apical Ballooning and Cardiogenic Shock in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy". CASE (Phila). 2 (6): 243. doi:10.1016/j.case.2018.07.009. PMC 6302028. PMID 30582082.
  8. Mathew V, Misgar RA, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay P, Roychowdhury P, Pandit K, Mukhopadhyay S, Chowdhury S (2011). "Myxedema coma: a new look into an old crisis". J Thyroid Res. 2011: 493462. doi:10.4061/2011/493462. PMC 3175396. PMID 21941682.
  9. Binaghi G, Congia D, Cossa S, Massidda S, Pasqualucci D, Pilo F, Serra E, Angelucci E, Porcu M (2018). "Cardiogenic Shock during First Infusion of Anthracycline Chemotherapy in a Patient with Hodgkin Lymphoma: An Unusual Event". Cardiology. 139 (1): 7–10. doi:10.1159/000480291. PMID 29041005.
  10. Kleber FX, Sabin GV, Winter UJ, Reindl I, Beil S, Wenzel M, Fischer M, Doering W (August 1997). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in preventing remodeling and development of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction: results of the German multicenter study of the effects of captopril on cardiopulmonary exercise parameters (ECCE)". Am. J. Cardiol. 80 (3A): 162A–167A. doi:10.1016/s0002-9149(97)00474-8. PMID 9293972.
  11. Mark AL (January 1983). "The Bezold-Jarisch reflex revisited: clinical implications of inhibitory reflexes originating in the heart". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1 (1): 90–102. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(83)80014-x. PMID 6826948.
  12. Cárdenes León A, Gallardo Santos E, Prada Osorio R, López Pérez M, Martín Lorenzo PL (December 2017). "Cardiogenic Shock and Cardiac Tamponade in the Context of Influenza A Myopericarditis". Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 70 (12): 1149–1151. doi:10.1016/j.rec.2017.01.031. PMID 28454888.
  13. Hasdai, David. (2002). Cardiogenic shock : diagnosis and treatmen. Totowa, N.J.: Humana Press. ISBN 1-58829-025-5.
  14. Gianni, M. (2006). "Apical ballooning syndrome or takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a systematic review". European Heart Journal. 27 (13): 1523–1529. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl032. ISSN 0195-668X.



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