Difference between revisions of "COVID-19 primary prevention"

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(Primary Prevention)
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{{COVID-19}}
 
{{COVID-19}}
{{CMG}}{{cv}}
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{{CMG}}; {{AE}} {{HK}}
  
==Overview==
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==Overiew==
  
 +
There is currently no [[vaccine]] to prevent [[Novel Coronavirus|2019-nCoV]] infection. The best way to prevent [[infection]] is to avoid being exposed to this [[virus]]. The fact that it is currently [[flu]] and [[respiratory disease]] season, [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|CDC]] recommends getting a [[flu vaccine]], taking everyday preventive actions to help stop the spread of [[Germ|germs]], and taking [[flu]] [[antivirals]] if prescribed. [[Health care provider|Healthcare providers]] are advised to be on the look-out for people who recently traveled from China and have [[fever]] and [[Respiratory system|respiratory]] [[Symptom|symptoms]].
 +
== Primary Prevention ==
  
==Primary Prevention==
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=== Exposure Control ===
According to a modeling study
 
<ref name="KooCook2020">{{cite journal|last1=Koo|first1=Joel R|last2=Cook|first2=Alex R|last3=Park|first3=Minah|last4=Sun|first4=Yinxiaohe|last5=Sun|first5=Haoyang|last6=Lim|first6=Jue Tao|last7=Tam|first7=Clarence|last8=Dickens|first8=Borame L|title=Interventions to mitigate early spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore: a modelling study|journal=The Lancet Infectious Diseases|year=2020|issn=14733099|doi=10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30162-6}}</ref>:
 
"Implementing the combined intervention of
 
* quarantining infected individuals and their family members,
 
* workplace distancing, and
 
* school closure once community transmission has been detected
 
...could substantially reduce the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections."
 
  
Similar findings have been modeled by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis and WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Modelling
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==== 2019-nCoV ====
<ref>{{Cite conference| last1 = Ferguson| first1 = N.| last2 = Laydon| first2 = D.| last3 = Nedjati Gilani| first3 = G.| last4 = Imai| first4 = N.| last5 = Ainslie| first5 = K.| last6 = Baguelin| first6 = M.| last7 = Bhatia| first7 = S.| last8 = Boonyasiri| first8 = A.| last9 = Cucunuba Perez| first9 = Zulma| last10 = Cuomo-Dannenburg| first10 = G.| last11 = Dighe| first11 = A.| last12 = Dorigatti| first12 = I.| last13 = Fu| first13 = H.| last14 = Gaythorpe| first14 = K.| last15 = Green| first15 = W.| last16 = Hamlet| first16 = A.| last17 = Hinsley| first17 = W.| last18 = Okell| first18 = L.| last19 = Van Elsland| first19 = S.| last20 = Thompson| first20 = H.| last21 = Verity| first21 = R.| last22 = Volz| first22 = E.| last23 = Wang| first23 = H.| last24 = Wang| first24 = Y.| last25 = Walker| first25 = P.| last26 = Winskill| first26 = P.| last27 = Whittaker| first27 = C.| last28 = Donnelly| first28 = C.| last29 = Riley| first29 = S.| last30 = Ghani| first30 = A.| title = Report 9: Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand| accessdate = 2020-03-25| date = 2020-03-16| url = http://spiral.imperial.ac.uk/handle/10044/1/77482}}</ref>.
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There is currently no [[vaccine]] to prevent [[Novel Coronavirus|2019-nCoV]] infection. The best way to prevent [[infection]] is to avoid being exposed to this [[virus]]. The following practices should be adopted for [[infection]] control:<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html|title=|last=|first=|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
  
Other preliminary research is available<ref name="LaiRuktanonchai2020">{{cite journal|last1=Lai|first1=Shengjie|last2=Ruktanonchai|first2=Nick W|last3=Zhou|first3=Liangcai|last4=Prosper|first4=Olivia|last5=Luo|first5=Wei|last6=Floyd|first6=Jessica R|last7=Wesolowski|first7=Amy|last8=Santillana|first8=Mauricio|last9=Zhang|first9=Chi|last10=Du|first10=Xiangjun|last11=Yu|first11=Hongjie|last12=Tatem|first12=Andrew J|year=2020|doi=10.1101/2020.03.03.20029843}}</ref>.
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*[[Hand washing]] often with [[soap]] and [[water]] for at least 20 seconds.
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* Using an [[Hand sanitizer|alcohol-based hand sanitizer]] that contains at least 60% [[alcohol]] if [[soap]] and [[water]] are not available
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* Avoid touching [[Eye|eyes]], [[nose]], and [[mouth]] with unwashed hands
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* Avoid close contact with people who are sick
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* Stay home when [[symptomatic]]
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* Cover [[cough]] or [[sneeze]] with a tissue paper, then throw the tissue in the trash
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* Clean and [[Disinfection|disinfect]] frequently touched objects and surfaces
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 +
* Protective clothing:
 +
**[[White coat|Lab coats]], gloves when direct skin contact with [[Infection|infected]] materials or animals is unavoidable
 +
**[[Eye protection]] must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes
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* Miscellaneous:
 +
** All procedures that may produce [[aerosols]], or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC)
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** The use of [[Needle|needles]], [[Syringe|syringes]], and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities
 +
 
 +
=== Handling and Storage ===
 +
 
 +
* Spills
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** Allow [[Aerosol|aerosols]] to settle and, wearing protective clothing, gently cover spill with paper towels and apply an appropriate [[disinfectant]], starting at the perimeter and working towards the center
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** Allow sufficient contact time before clean up
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* Disposal
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**[[Decontamination|Decontaminate]] all wastes that contain or have come in contact with the [[infectious]] [[organism]] before disposing by [[autoclave]], [[disinfection|chemical disinfection]], [[gamma irradiation]], or [[incineration]].
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* Storage
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** The [[infectious agent]] should be stored in leak-proof containers that are appropriately labeled
 +
 
 +
=== CDC Recommendations Regarding 2019-nCoV Infection ===
 +
 
 +
* While the immediate risk of this new virus to the American public is believed to be low at this time, everyone can do their part to help in responding to this emerging public health threat:<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/summary.html|title=|last=|first=|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
** The fact that it is currently [[flu]] and [[respiratory disease]] season, [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|CDC]] recommends getting a [[flu vaccine]], taking everyday preventive actions to help stop the spread of [[Germ|germs]], and taking [[flu]] [[antivirals]] if prescribed.
 +
**[[Health care provider|Healthcare providers]] are advised to be on the look-out for people who recently traveled from China and have [[fever]] and [[Respiratory system|respiratory]] [[Symptom|symptoms]].
 +
**[[Health care provider|Healthcare providers]] caring for [[2019-nCoV]] [[Patient|patients]] or [[public health]] responders are advised to take care of themselves and follow recommended [[infection]] control procedures.
 +
** People who have had close contact with someone [[Infection|infected]] with [[2019-nCoV]] and are [[symptomatic]] should contact their [[Health care provider|healthcare provider]] and tell them about their [[Symptom|symptoms]] and exposure to a [[2019-nCoV]] patient.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|2}}
 
{{reflist|2}}

Revision as of 14:04, 26 March 2020

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]

Overiew

There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus. The fact that it is currently flu and respiratory disease season, CDC recommends getting a flu vaccine, taking everyday preventive actions to help stop the spread of germs, and taking flu antivirals if prescribed. Healthcare providers are advised to be on the look-out for people who recently traveled from China and have fever and respiratory symptoms.

Primary Prevention

Exposure Control

2019-nCoV

There is currently no vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid being exposed to this virus. The following practices should be adopted for infection control:[1]

  • Protective clothing:
    • Lab coats, gloves when direct skin contact with infected materials or animals is unavoidable
    • Eye protection must be used where there is a known or potential risk of exposure to splashes
  • Miscellaneous:
    • All procedures that may produce aerosols, or involve high concentrations or large volumes should be conducted in a biological safety cabinet (BSC)
    • The use of needles, syringes, and other sharp objects should be strictly limited. Additional precautions should be considered with work involving animals or large scale activities

Handling and Storage

CDC Recommendations Regarding 2019-nCoV Infection

  • While the immediate risk of this new virus to the American public is believed to be low at this time, everyone can do their part to help in responding to this emerging public health threat:[2]

References

  1. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/summary.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)

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