Difference between revisions of "COVID-19-associated neutrophilia"

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==Diagnosis==
 
==Diagnosis==
===Diagnostic Choice of Study===
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===Diagnostic study of Choice ===
 
*Complete Blood Count with differential<ref name="urlNeutrophilia: Overview, Causes, Development of Neutrophils">{{cite web |url=https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/208576-overview#a7 |title=Neutrophilia: Overview, Causes, Development of Neutrophils |format= |work= |accessdate=}}</ref>
 
*Complete Blood Count with differential<ref name="urlNeutrophilia: Overview, Causes, Development of Neutrophils">{{cite web |url=https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/208576-overview#a7 |title=Neutrophilia: Overview, Causes, Development of Neutrophils |format= |work= |accessdate=}}</ref>
 
*C-reactive protein
 
*C-reactive protein

Revision as of 13:18, 1 July 2020

For COVID-19 frequently asked inpatient questions, click here
For COVID-19 frequently asked outpatient questions, click here

WikiDoc Resources for COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Articles

Most recent articles on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Most cited articles on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Review articles on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Articles on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Images of COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Photos of COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Podcasts & MP3s on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Videos on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Bandolier on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

TRIP on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Clinical Trials on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

NICE Guidance on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

CDC on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Books

Books on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

News

COVID-19-associated neutrophilia in the news

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News trends on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Commentary

Blogs on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Definitions

Definitions of COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Discussion groups on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Patient Handouts on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Directions to Hospitals Treating COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Risk calculators and risk factors for COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Causes & Risk Factors for COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Diagnostic studies for COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Treatment of COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

International

COVID-19-associated neutrophilia en Espanol

COVID-19-associated neutrophilia en Francais

Business

COVID-19-associated neutrophilia in the Marketplace

Patents on COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to COVID-19-associated neutrophilia

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Oluwabusola Fausat Adogba, MD

Synonyms and Keywords:

Overview

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been considered as a global pandemic since its first emergence in Wuhan,China.On March 12, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.There is no established system for the classification regarding COVID-19 associated neutrophilia.There is no established system for the classification regarding COVID-19 associated neutrophilia.Research suggests COVID-19 associated neutrophilia could be the cause of the severe symptoms of COVID-19, including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). It can be linked to the Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary inflammation, thick mucus secretions in the airways, extensive lung damage, and blood clots are suggested to be as a result of the action of Neutrophils. When neutrophils detect pathogens, they can expel their DNA in a web laced with toxic enzymes (called a NET- Neutrophil Extracellular Trap) to attack them.These NETs capture and digest the unwanted pathogen but in cases of ARDS (Covid-19 manifestation) they cause damage to the lungs and other organs. People of any age with certain underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19.Recent studies have shown the association of a high Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to severe forms of COVID-19 disease.

Historical Perspective

  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been considered as a global pandemic since its first emergence in Wuhan,China.[1]

Classification

There is no established system for the classification regarding COVID-19 associated neutrophilia.

Causes

  • Research suggests COVID-19 associated neutrophilia could be the cause of the severe symptoms of COVID-19, including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). It can be linked to the Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary inflammation, thick mucus secretions in the airways, extensive lung damage, and blood clots are suggested to be as a result of the action of Neutrophils. When neutrophils detect pathogens, they can expel their DNA in a web laced with toxic enzymes (called a NET- Neutrophil Extracellular Trap) to attack them.
  • These NETs capture and digest the unwanted pathogen but in cases of ARDS (Covid-19 manifestation) they cause damage to the lungs and other organs. [2]

Differentiating COVID-19 related Neutrophilia from other Diseases

COVID-19 related Neutrophilia starts acutely in the course of the disease, with other manifestations of the disease. Neutrophilia can occur in the following conditions:[3]

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The incidence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) as of June 28, 2020 is approximately 9,843,073 cases worldwide with 495,760 deaths.[4]
  • Patients of all age groups may develop COVID-19. However, the elderly population and immunocompromised individuals are more likely to develop severe cases of COVID-19.

Risk Factors

People of any age with certain underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. These medical conditions include:[5]

Screening

  • A high Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio has been linked to ICU admission. A routine Complete blood count (CBC) test should be done in COVID-19 patients for early detection.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

  • Common hematologic complications of coronavirus include lymphopenia, neutrophilia and thrombocytosis.
  • Although the pathogenesis of the cytokine storm associated with Neutrophilia in COVID-19 patients is unclear. It has however been associated with poor outcomes in patients. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio has been identified as an independent risk factor for severe disease in COVID-19 patients.[6]

Diagnosis

Diagnostic study of Choice

  • Complete Blood Count with differential[3]
  • C-reactive protein
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

History and Symptoms

Neutrophilia as a result of COVID-19 can present with different symptoms. People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:[7]

Neutrophilia as an indicator for severe disease

  • Recent studies have shown the association of a high Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to severe forms of COVID-19 disease.
  • NLR >4 on admission has been linked to ICU admission.
  • COVID-19 patients with severe disease presentation had a higher NLR on admission compared to patients with a milder COVID-19 disease presentation.[8]

References

  1. "WHO Western Pacific | World Health Organization".
  2. "Severe COVID-19 symptoms may be caused by overactive neutrophils".
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Neutrophilia: Overview, Causes, Development of Neutrophils".
  4. "WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard | WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard".
  5. "People Who Are at Higher Risk for Severe Illness | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | CDC".
  6. Egeblad, Mikala; Zuo, Yu; Weber, Andrew; Yost, Christian C.; Spicer, Jonathan D.; Schwartz, Robert E.; Salvatore, Steven; Rousseau, Simon; Renaud, Stephane; Rayes, Roni; McAllister, Florencia; Looney, Mark R.; Loda, Massimo; Knight, Jason S.; Huynh, Caroline; Guerci, Philippe; Daßler-Plenker, Juliane; Crawford, James M.; Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Borczuk, Alain; Baxter-Stoltzfus, Amelia; Adrover, Jose M.; Barnes, Betsy J. (2020). "Targeting potential drivers of COVID-19: Neutrophil extracellular traps". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 217 (6). doi:10.1084/jem.20200652. ISSN 0022-1007.
  7. "Symptoms of Coronavirus | CDC".
  8. Ciccullo, Arturo; Borghetti, Alberto; Zileri Dal Verme, Lorenzo; Tosoni, Alberto; Lombardi, Francesca; Garcovich, Matteo; Biscetti, Federico; Montalto, Massimo; Cauda, Roberto; Di Giambenedetto, Simona (2020). "Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and clinical outcome in COVID-19: a report from the Italian front line". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents: 106017. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106017. ISSN 0924-8579.



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