Brain Stem Gliomas classification

Revision as of 20:52, 6 October 2019 by Marjan Khan (talk | contribs) (Classification)
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sujit Routray, M.D. [2]

Overview

Brainstem gliomas may be classified into four subtypes: diffuse, focal, dorsal exophytic, and cervicomedullary.

Classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brainstem gliomas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diffuse brainstem glioma
 
 
 
 
 
 
Focal brainstem glioma
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
exophytic
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cervicomedullary
 

Brainstem gliomas may be classified into 4 subtypes:

  • Diffuse brainstem glioma
  • Focal brainstem glioma
    • Tectal plate glioma
    • Other focal gliomas
  • (Dorsally) exophytic
  • Cervicomedullary
    • Probably an artificial group made up of the downward extension of true brainstem gliomas or upward extension of upper cervical cord intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brainstem gliomas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Diffuse brainstem glioma
 
 
 
 
 
 
Focal brainstem glioma
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
exophytic
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cervicomedullary
 

References

Diseases Symptoms Physical Examination Diagnostic tests Past medical history Other Findings
Hematuria Pyuria Frequency Urgency Dysuria Fever Tenderness Discharge Inguinal Lymphadenopathy Urinalysis Urine Culture Gold Standard
Differentiating amongst different types of urinary tract infections:
Pyelonephritis + + + + Flank or costovertebral angle + + Identifies causative bacteria Urine culture
Cystitis + + + + + + Suprapubic + >100,000CFU/mL Urine culture
Urethritis + + + Urethral discharge + Gram stain & mucoid or purulent discharge
Prostatitis + + + + + Identifies causative bacteria (in bacterial subtypes) Urine culture
Diseases Symptoms Physical Examination Diagnostic tests Past medical history Other Findings
Hematuria Pyuria Frequency Urgency Dysuria Fever Tenderness Discharge Inguinal Lymphadenopathy Urinalysis Urine Culture Gold Standard

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