Antiphospholipid syndrome secondary prevention
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The secondary prevention of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) includes reduction of reversible risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and life-long anticoagulation maintaining a target INR of 3.0-4.0
Reduction of reversible risk factors
- Oral contraceptives use
- During the perioperative period, this may include minimizing the period when patients are off anticoagulation.
- Initiating early ambulation
- Measures to reduce venous stasis.
Continuation of anticoagulation:
|Recommendations for secondary prophylaxis in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and thrombosis|
|Patients with definite antiphospholipid syndrome and first venous event||Indefinite anticoagulation to a target INR* 2·0–3·0|
|Patients with definite antiphospholipid syndrome and arterial event||Indefinite anticoagulation to a target INR 3·0–4·0|
|Patients with definite antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent events despite warfarin with a target intensity of 2·0–3·0||Indefinite anticoagulation to a target INR 3·0–4·0 or alternative therapies such as extended therapeutic dose low-molecular-weight heparin|
|Patients with venous thromboembolism with single positive or low-titre antiphospholipid antibodies||As usual per recommendations for deep vein thrombosis treatment|
|Patients with arterial thrombosis with single positive or low-titre antiphospholipid antibodies||As usual per recommendations for arterial thrombosis|
*INR= International normalized ratio
- Ruiz-Irastorza G, Cuadrado MJ, Ruiz-Arruza I, Brey R, Crowther M, Derksen R; et al. (2011). "Evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and long-term management of thrombosis in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients: report of a task force at the 13th International Congress on antiphospholipid antibodies". Lupus. 20 (2): 206–18. doi:10.1177/0961203310395803. PMID 21303837.
- Holbrook A, Schulman S, Witt DM, Vandvik PO, Fish J, Kovacs MJ; et al. (2012). "Evidence-based management of anticoagulant therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines". Chest. 141 (2 Suppl): e152S–e184S. doi:10.1378/chest.11-2295. PMC 3278055. PMID 22315259.
- Keeling D, Mackie I, Moore GW, Greer IA, Greaves M, British Committee for Standards in Haematology (2012). "Guidelines on the investigation and management of antiphospholipid syndrome". Br J Haematol. 157 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09037.x. PMID 22313321.