Amnesia differential diagnosis
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zehra Malik, M.B.B.S
The underlying etiology of memory loss must be differentiated on the basis of duration of memory loss, presence of anterograde amnesia or retrograde amnesia, associated features, and cognitive impairment.
Amnesia Differential Diagnosis
|Duration of Amnesia||Associated Features||Cognitive Impairment|
|Post-traumatic amnesia||Varies||Head Trauma||Variable, depends on the extent of brain injury|
|Dissociative Amnesia||Variable. Could last minutes, hours, or rarely even months or years||Usually follows an incident that caused a lot of stress and trauma||No cognitive impairment|
|Transient global amnesia||Less than 24hrs||Brain ischemia, migraine, seizure, venous congestion, psychological trauma.||No cognitive impairment|
|Drug-Induced Amnesia||Once drug is stopped, memory gradually regained||Benzodiazepines||No cognitive impairment|
|Neurological Amnesia||Does not resolve, patient experiences progressive memory loss.||Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, Parkinson's disease||Progressive cognitive impairment|
|Transient epileptic amnesia||Episodic transient amnesia||History of temporal lobe epilepsy||No cognitive impairment|
|Age-Related Amnesia||Slow and progressive memory loss||Diagnosis of exclusion||No cognitive impairment|
- ↑ Leclerc S, Lassonde M, Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Johnston KM (2001). "Recommendations for grading of concussion in athletes". Sports Med. 31 (8): 629–36. doi:10.2165/00007256-200131080-00007. PMID 11475324.
- ↑ Wortzel HS, Arciniegas DB (2012). "Treatment of post-traumatic cognitive impairments". Curr Treat Options Neurol. 14 (5): 493–508. doi:10.1007/s11940-012-0193-6. PMC 3437653. PMID 22865461.
- ↑ Bourget D, Whitehurst L (2007). "Amnesia and crime". J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 35 (4): 469–80. PMID 18086739.
- ↑ American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5
- ↑ Profice P, Rizzello V, Pennestrì F, Pilato F, Della Marca G, Sestito A; et al. (2008). "Transient global amnesia during transoesophageal echocardiogram". Neurol Sci. 29 (6): 477–9. doi:10.1007/s10072-008-1034-y. PMID 19031042.
- ↑ Amnesia is anterograde from the time the drug was introduced and patient has impairment in forming new memories. It is reversible upon discontinuation of the drug.
- ↑ Zeman AZ, Boniface SJ, Hodges JR (1998). "Transient epileptic amnesia: a description of the clinical and neuropsychological features in 10 cases and a review of the literature". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 64 (4): 435–43. doi:10.1136/jnnp.64.4.435. PMC 2170058. PMID 9576532.
- ↑ Waldemar G, Dubois B, Emre M, Georges J, McKeith IG, Rossor M; et al. (2007). "Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease and other disorders associated with dementia: EFNS guideline". Eur J Neurol. 14 (1): e1–26. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01605.x. PMID 17222085.