Alcoholism epidemiology and demographics
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The consumption of alcohol is a significant determinant of public health outcomes. According to global statistics from 2016, alcohol is the seventh leading cause of disability-adjusted life years, a rise of more than 25% from 1990 to 2016. The epidemiology of the alcoholic liver disease, as well as geographic differences in intake and public policy, is a hot topic of research. There tends to be a reduction in disease burden in countries where per capita alcohol intake decreases. Given the negative health effects of alcohol, more emphasis on alcohol control policies is needed.
Epidemiology and Demorgrahics
Substance use disorders are a major public health problem facing many countries. "The most common substance of abuse/dependence in patients presenting for treatment is alcohol." In the United Kingdom, the number of 'dependent drinkers' was calculated as over 2.8 million in 2001. The World Health Organization estimates that about 140 million people throughout the world suffer from alcohol dependence.According to global statistics from 2016, alcohol is the seventh leading cause of disability-adjusted life years, a rise of more than 25% from 1990 to 2016. The epidemiology of the alcoholic liver disease, as well as geographic differences in intake and public policy, is a hot topic of research. There tends to be a reduction in disease burden in countries where per capita alcohol intake decreases. Alcohol consumption is usually measured per capita, or the amount of alcohol consumed in liters per person, for epidemiologic purposes.
Within the medical community, there is a broad consensus regarding alcoholism as a disease state. Outside the medical community, there is considerable debate regarding the Disease Theory of Alcoholism. Proponents argue that any structural or functional disorder having a predictable course, or progression, should be classified as a disease. Opponents cite the inability to pin down the behavioral issues to a physical cause as a reason for avoiding classification.
The 12-month prevalence of alcohol use disorder is:
- 4,600 per 100,000 (4.6%) in ages 12-17 years
- 8,500 per 100,000 (8.5%) in age group of 18
- 12,400 per 100,000 (12.4%) in adult men
- 4,900 per 100,000 (4.9%) in adult women
About 18% of American adults have had an alcohol abuse problem at some time in their life, in addition to about 12% who have also had an alcohol dependence problem. Significant correlations exist between alcohol abuse and other substance abuse disorders. A 2002 study by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism surveyed a group of 4,422 adult alcoholics and found the following after one year:
- 25% still dependent
- 27.3% in partial remission (some symptoms persist)
- 11.8% asymptomatic drinkers (consumption increases chances of relapse)
- 35.9% fully recovered — made up of 17.7% low-risk drinkers plus 18.2% abstainers.
- ↑ Gabbard: "Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders". Published by the American Psychiatric Association: 3rd edition, 2001, ISBN 0-88048-910-3
- ↑ Cabinet Office Strategy Unit Alcohol misuse: How much does it cost? September 2003
- ↑ WHO European Ministerial Conference on Young People and Alcohol
- ↑ WHO to meet beverage company representatives to discuss health-related alcohol issues
- ↑ Axley PD, Richardson CT, Singal AK (February 2019). "Epidemiology of Alcohol Consumption and Societal Burden of Alcoholism and Alcoholic Liver Disease". Clin Liver Dis. 23 (1): 39–50. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2018.09.011. PMID 30454831.
- ↑ Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. ISBN 0890425558.
- ↑ National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 2001-2002 Survey Finds That Many Recover From Alcoholism Press release 18 January 2005.