Difference between revisions of "Adrenomedullin"

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'''Adrenomedullin''' is a peptide associated with [[pheochromocytoma]]. It was discovered in 1993.<ref>{{cite journal | author = | title = Quantifying angiogenesis in VEGF-enhanced tissue-engineered bladder constructs by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using contrast agents of different molecular weights. | journal = J Magn Reson Imaging | volume = | issue = | pages = | year = | id = PMID 17139634}}</ref>
 
'''Adrenomedullin''' is a peptide associated with [[pheochromocytoma]]. It was discovered in 1993.<ref>{{cite journal | author = | title = Quantifying angiogenesis in VEGF-enhanced tissue-engineered bladder constructs by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using contrast agents of different molecular weights. | journal = J Magn Reson Imaging | volume = | issue = | pages = | year = | id = PMID 17139634}}</ref>
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Revision as of 14:09, 19 August 2008


Adrenomedullin
Identifiers
Symbols ADM ; AM
External IDs OMIM: 103275 MGI108058 HomoloGene873
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ADM 202912 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs

| | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Human | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Mouse |-

    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Entrez 
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| 133
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| 11535

|-

     | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Ensembl
     | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| ENSG00000148926
     | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| ENSMUSG00000030790

|-

    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Uniprot
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| P35318
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| Q6GTK2

|-

    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Refseq
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd" | NM_001124 (mRNA)
NP_001115 (protein)
| bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd" |NM_009627 (mRNA)
NP_033757 (protein)

|-

    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Location
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"|  Chr 11: 10.28 - 10.29 Mb 
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"|  Chr 7: 110.42 -  110.42 Mb 

|-

|-

    | bgcolor="#C3FDB8" | Pubmed search 
    | bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| [1]
| bgcolor="#eeeeee" style="border-top:2px solid #dddddd; border-right:2px solid #dddddd"| [2]
Species Human Mouse
Entrez n/a n/a
Ensembl n/a n/a
UniProt n/a n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a n/a
Location (UCSC) n/a n/a
PubMed search n/a n/a

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Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Adrenomedullin

Please Take Over This Page and Apply to be Editor-In-Chief for this topic: There can be one or more than one Editor-In-Chief. You may also apply to be an Associate Editor-In-Chief of one of the subtopics below. Please mail us [3] to indicate your interest in serving either as an Editor-In-Chief of the entire topic or as an Associate Editor-In-Chief for a subtopic. Please be sure to attach your CV and or biographical sketch.

Adrenomedullin is a peptide associated with pheochromocytoma. It was discovered in 1993.[1]

Adrenomedullin (AM) is a ubiquitously expressed peptide initially isolated from phaechromyctoma in 1993 (Kitamura et al., 1998). Since its first report, studies examining the effects of adrenomedullin have mushroomed, highlighting its role in a number of diseases. Recently a second peptide AM2 has been recognised, exhibiting similar functions (Fujisawa et al., 2004).

The Adrenomedullin Peptide

The human AM gene is localized to a single locus on Chromosome 11 with 4 exons and 3 introns. The AM gene initially codes for a 185-amino acid precursor peptide [3], that can be differentially excised to form a number of peptides, including an inactive 53-amino acid AM, e PAMP, adrenotensin and AM95-146. Mature human AM is activated to form a 52 amino acid, 6-amino acid ring, that shares moderate structural similarity to the calcitonin family of regulatory peptides (calcitonin, CGRP and amylin). Circulating AM consists of both amidated (mature) and the glycated form (inactive, with the latter comprising the major form (85%) [5]. The measured to have a plasma half-life of 22min, mean clearance rate of 274 mL/kg/min, and apparent volume of distribution of 880+/- 150 mL/kg (Meeran et al., 1997). Mature AM is metabolised via aminopeptidase action.

Receptors of Adrenomedullin

At present AM is believed to function through through the combination of a few combinations of the calitonin receptor like receptor (CL) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP) complexes, as well as CGRP receptors. It is worth noting that unlike the classical one ligand-one receptor notion of receptor signalling, the interaction of both CL and RAMP at the membrane, is required for AM to mediate its action. The outcome of AM stimulatation of its receptor is the cellular production of both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and nitric oxide production. Some may find the production of these inside the cell to be at odds, since often they have opposing effects, but as yet, the timing of these effects remains to be studied.

The physiological functions of Adrenomedullin

AM was initially identified as a vasodilator, some have cited this as the most potent endogenous vasodilatory peptide found in the body (Cockcroft et al., 1997). Differences in opinion regarding the ability of AM to relax vascular tone arises from the differences in the model system used (Hamid and Baxter, 2005). Other effects of AM include increasing the tolerance of cells to oxidative stress and hypoxic injury and angiogenesis. AM is seen as a positive influence in diseases such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other cardiovascular diseases, whereas it can be seen as a negative factor in potentiating the potential of cancerous cells to extend their blood supply and cause cell proliferation.


References

  1. "Quantifying angiogenesis in VEGF-enhanced tissue-engineered bladder constructs by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using contrast agents of different molecular weights". J Magn Reson Imaging. PMID 17139634.

Further reading

  • Cao et al., Regulated Peptide, 113(1-3),109-114. 2003.
  • Cockcroft et al., Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997 Jul;44(1):57-60.
  • Fujisawa Y et al., Eur J Pharmacol. Aug 16;497(1):75-80. 2004.
  • Hamid SA, Baxter GF, Pharmacol Ther. Feb;105(2):95-112.2005.
  • Kitamura et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commum, 244(2), 551-555. 1998.
  • Meeran K et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jan;82(1):95-100. 1997

External links

Cost Effectiveness of Adrenomedullin

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Adrenomedullin | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Adrenomedullin at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on AdrenomedullinClinical Trials on Adrenomedullin at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Adrenomedullin | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on AdrenomedullinNICE Guidance on AdrenomedullinNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on AdrenomedullinCDC on Adrenomedullin


| group7 = Textbook Information on Adrenomedullin | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Adrenomedullin


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Adrenomedullin | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of AdrenomedullinAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with AdrenomedullinAND (side effects)}} Side effects of AdrenomedullinAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to AdrenomedullinAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on AdrenomedullinAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on AdrenomedullinAND (pregnancy)}} Adrenomedullin in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Adrenomedullin


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Adrenomedullin | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of AdrenomedullinAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of AdrenomedullinAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Adrenomedullin


| group10 = Newstories on Adrenomedullin | list10 = Adrenomedullin in the newsBe alerted to news on AdrenomedullinNews trends on Adrenomedullin


| group11 = Commentary on Adrenomedullin | list11 = Blogs on Adrenomedullin

| group12 = Patient Resources on Adrenomedullin | list12 = Patient resources on AdrenomedullinDiscussion groups on AdrenomedullinPatient Handouts on AdrenomedullinDirections to Hospitals Treating AdrenomedullinRisk calculators and risk factors for Adrenomedullin


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Adrenomedullin | list13 = Symptoms of AdrenomedullinCauses & Risk Factors for AdrenomedullinDiagnostic studies for AdrenomedullinTreatment of Adrenomedullin

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Adrenomedullin | list14 = CME Programs on Adrenomedullin

| group15 = International Resources on Adrenomedullin | list15 = Adrenomedullin en EspanolAdrenomedullin en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Adrenomedullin | list16 = Adrenomedullin in the MarketplacePatents on Adrenomedullin

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Adrenomedullin | list17 = List of terms related to Adrenomedullin


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