Quality improvement is "the attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.".
Wennberg's classification framework can categorize causes of unwarranted variation.
Lean sigma combines approaches.
A positive deviance approach has been recommended to identify and disseminate best organizational practices Early description of this method was:
- "Develop case definitions"
- "Identify four to six people who have achieved an unexpected good outcome despite high risk"
- "Interview and observe these people to discover uncommon behaviours or enabling factors that could explain the good outcome"
- "Analyse the findings to confirm that the behaviours are uncommon and accessible to those who need to adopt them"
- "Design behaviour change activities to encourage community adoption of the new behaviours"
- "Monitor implementation and evaluate the results"
Positive deviance is consistent with complexity leadership.
Appreciative inquiry (AI) was developed in 1987 by Cooperrider and Srivastva Appreciative inquiry is consistent with complexity science.
AI may encourage receptivity to improvement, but without actual improvement.
Quality measures and their benchmarks are available from several organizations including:
- CQI Resource Center (coordinated by the Centers for Medicare & Services (CMS) and the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)
For reporting of quality measures:
- eCQMs may be better than claims-based reporting of quality. eCQMs could also be used for billing.
Goodhart's law is when measures become organizational goals, problems may ensue.
Tactics for improvement
A conceptual model has been developed and recommended by the AHRQ.
Practice facilitation may help based on the experience of the American Academy of Family Physicians' (AAFP) National Demonstration Project (NDP).
The Heart Health NOW Study found uncertain evidence from organizational leadership and Adaptive Reserve.
The VA's PACT used in-person and online collaborative methods.
Workforce redesign may help.
Per-for-performance may not work optimally.
Why quality improvement efforts succeed and fail
Various organizational characteristics, some based on complexity science, may predict why quality improvement projects succeed and fail. Causes include:
- Lack of clinical champion, especially a physician
- No internal efforts for self-measurement
“when I see workers measuring themselves, I see quality.” Attributed to W. Edwards Deming
- Large numbers of healthcare providers and patients to coordinate at a clinic.
- "practices' ability to respond to change and to adapt team roles in workflow, influenced by both local leadership and stable staffing"
Studies using appreciative inquiry have been done.
Different approaches may be needed depending on the level of certainty in the clinical science behind a quality improvement project.
Recommendations for QI projects to implement guidelines may not include tactics to foster a positive workplace culture.
Work culture and quality improvement
A systematic review found an association with workplace culture and clinical outcomes. However, this review did not provide details of attributes of positive culture. This review did not find any randomized trials.
A cross-sectional study of 537 American hospitals found that clinical improvement was associated with the following, ranked in descending order of impact:
- 'having physician and nurse champions rather than nurse champions alone'
- 'fostering an organizational environment in which clinicians are encouraged to solve problems creatively'
- 'holding monthly meetings to review AMI cases between hospital clinicians and staff who transported patients to the hospital'
A cohort of 10 American hospitals found:
- 'effective inclusion of staff from different disciplines and levels in the organisational hierarchy in the team guiding improvement efforts (referred to as the ‘guiding coalition’ in each hospital)'
- 'authentic participation in the work of the guiding coalition'
- 'distinct patterns of managing conflict'
The Malcolm Baldrige Health Care version of the Criteria for Performance Excellence (HCPE) award has been created to foster a culture of quality improvement across an organization. Two studies of the impact of the award have found:
- "No significant difference in process of care results or outcomes between Baldrige recipients and their competitors, there was a significant difference in patient experience results" .
- "Slight enhancements in clinical outcomes, while hospital financial and efficiency measures all showed overwhelmingly positive operating results"
- ↑ Anonymous (2023), Quality improvement (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- ↑ Harrison R, Manias E, Mears S, Heslop D, Hinchcliff R, Hay L (2018). "Addressing unwarranted clinical variation: A rapid review of current evidence". J Eval Clin Pract. doi:10.1111/jep.12930. PMID 29766616.
- ↑ Danese, P., Manfè, V. and Romano, P. (2017), A Systematic Literature Review on Recent Lean Research: State-of-the-art and Future Directions. International Journal of Management Reviews. doi:10.1111/ijmr.12156
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Marsh DR, Schroeder DG, Dearden KA, Sternin J, Sternin M (2004). "The power of positive deviance". BMJ. 329 (7475): 1177–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7475.1177. PMC 527707. PMID 15539680.
- ↑ Bock, L. (2015). The Two Tails. In: Work rules!: Insights from inside Google that will transform how you live and lead. Twelve. ISBN 1455554790
- ↑ Baxter R, Taylor N, Kellar I, Lawton R (2016). "What methods are used to apply positive deviance within healthcare organisations? A systematic review". BMJ Qual Saf. 25 (3): 190–201. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2015-004386. PMC 4789698. PMID 26590198.
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- ↑ Lindberg, Curt; Clancy, Thomas R. (2010). "Positive Deviance". JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration. 40 (4): 150–153. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181d40e39. ISSN 0002-0443.
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- ↑ Cooperrider, David L., and Suresh Srivastva. "APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY IN ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE." (1987).
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