Oculodentodigital syndrome

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Oculodentodigital syndrome
OMIM 164200

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Oculodentodigital syndrome (ODD syndrome) is an extremely rare genetic condition that typically results in small eyes, underdeveloped teeth, and problems with the fourth and fifth fingers. It has also been called oculo-dento-digital syndrome, oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), and oculodentoosseous dysplasia (ODOD).

Presentation

People with ODD syndrome often have a characteristic appearance. Visible features of the condition include:[1]

Iris atrophy and glaucoma are more common than average.[1] The size of the eyes often interferes with learning to read; special eyeglasses may be required. Hair may be fine, thin, dry, or fragile; in some families, it is curly.[2]

Neurologic abnormalities may be seen in adults. The neurologic changes may appear earlier in each subsequent generation[3] and can include abnormal white matter, conductive deafness, and various kinds of paresis,[4] including ataxia, spastic paraplegia, difficulty controlling the eyes, and bladder and bowel disturbances.[5][6][7]

Genetics

ODD is commonly an autosomal dominant condition, but can be inherited as a recessive trait. 16816024 It is generally believed to be caused by a mutation in the gene GJA1, which codes for the gap junction protein connexin 43.[1] Slightly different mutations in this gene may explain the different way the condition manifests in different families. Most people inherit this condition from their mothers or fathers, but new cases arise through mutation, particularly in older fathers.[8] The mutation has high penetrance and variable expression, which means that nearly all people with the gene show signs of the condition, but these signs can range from very mild to very obvious.[3]

Epidemiology

The actual incidence of this disease is not known, but only 243 cases have been reported in the scientific literature, suggesting an incidence of on the order of one affected person in ten million people.[5]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Vasconcellos JP, Melo MB, Schimiti RB, Bressanim NC, Costa FF, Costa VP (2005). "A novel mutation in the GJA1 gene in a family with oculodentodigital dysplasia". Arch. Ophthalmol. 123 (10): 1422–6. doi:10.1001/archopht.123.10.1422. PMID 16219735.
  2. Kelly, S. C., et al. A novel GJA1 mutation in oculo-dento-digital dysplasia with curly hair and hyperkeratosis. Europ. J. Derm. 16: 241-245, 2006.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Boyadjiev SA, Jabs EW, LaBuda M; et al. (1999). "Linkage analysis narrows the critical region for oculodentodigital dysplasia to chromosome 6q22-q23". Genomics. 58 (1): 34–40. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5814. PMID 10331943.
  4. Gutmann DH, Zackai EH, McDonald-McGinn DM, Fischbeck KH, Kamholz J (1991). "Oculodentodigital dysplasia syndrome associated with abnormal cerebral white matter". Am. J. Med. Genet. 41 (1): 18–20. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320410106. PMID 1659191.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Loddenkemper T, Grote K, Evers S, Oelerich M, Stögbauer F (2002). "Neurological manifestations of the oculodentodigital dysplasia syndrome". J. Neurol. 249 (5): 584–95. doi:10.1007/s004150200068. PMID 12021949.
  6. Norton KK, Carey JC, Gutmann DH (1995). "Oculodentodigital dysplasia with cerebral white matter abnormalities in a two-generation family". Am. J. Med. Genet. 57 (3): 458–61. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320570320. PMID 7677152.
  7. Paznekas WA, Boyadjiev SA, Shapiro RE; et al. (2003). "Connexin 43 (GJA1) mutations cause the pleiotropic phenotype of oculodentodigital dysplasia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72 (2): 408–18. PMID 12457340.
  8. Jones KL, Smith DW, Harvey MA, Hall BD, Quan L (1975). "Older paternal age and fresh gene mutation: data on additional disorders". J. Pediatr. 86 (1): 84–8. PMID 1110452.



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