|Molar mass||17.00274 (7) g/mol|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
In chemistry, hydroxide is the most common name for the diatomic anion OH−, consisting of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, usually derived from the dissociation of a base. It is one of the simplest diatomic ions known.
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
- Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
- Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
Hydroxide as a base
Most compounds containing hydroxide are bases.
NH3(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH−(aq)
Salts containing hydroxide are called base salts. Base salts will dissociate into a cation and one or more hydroxide ions in water, making the solution basic. Base salts will undergo neutralisation reactions with acids. In general acid-alkali reactions can be simplified to
by omitting spectator ions.
Hydroxides and hydroxide ions are relatively common. Many useful chemicals and chemical processes involve hydroxides or hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide (lye) is used in industry as a strong base, potassium hydroxide is used in agriculture, and iron hydroxide minerals such as goethite and limonite have been used as low grade brown iron ore. The aluminium ore bauxite is composed largely of aluminium hydroxides.
The hydroxide ion is a kind of ligand. It donates lone pairs of electrons, behaving as a Lewis base. Examples of complexes containing such a ligand include the aluminate ion [Al(OH)4]− and aurate ion [Au(OH)4]−.
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