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H2A histone family, member X
PDB rendering based on 1aoi.
Available structures: 1aoi, 1eqz, 1hio, 1hq3, 1kx3, 1kx4, 1kx5, 1s32, 1tzy, 2aro, 2cv5, 2f8n, 2hio, 2nzd
Symbol(s) H2AFX; H2A.X; H2A/X; H2AX
External IDs OMIM: 601772 MGI102688 Homologene68227
RNA expression pattern

PBB GE H2AFX 205436 s at tn.png


More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 3014 15270
Ensembl ENSG00000188486 ENSMUSG00000049932
Uniprot P16104 P27661
Refseq NM_002105 (mRNA)
NP_002096 (protein)
NM_010436 (mRNA)
NP_034566 (protein)
Location Chr 11: 118.47 - 118.47 Mb Chr 9: 44.09 - 44.09 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

H2AFX is one of several genes coding for histone H2A. In humans and other eukaryotes, the DNA is wrapped around histone-groups, consisting of core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Thus, the H2AFX contributes to the histone-formation and therefore the structure of DNA.


Further reading

  • Redon C, Pilch D, Rogakou E; et al. (2002). "Histone H2A variants H2AX and H2AZ.". Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 12 (2): 162–9. PMID 11893489. 
  • Fernandez-Capetillo O, Lee A, Nussenzweig M, Nussenzweig A (2005). "H2AX: the histone guardian of the genome.". DNA Repair (Amst.). 3 (8-9): 959–67. PMID 15279782. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2004.03.024. 
  • Mannironi C, Bonner WM, Hatch CL (1990). "H2A.X. a histone isoprotein with a conserved C-terminal sequence, is encoded by a novel mRNA with both DNA replication type and polyA 3' processing signals.". Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (22): 9113–26. PMID 2587254. 
  • Banerjee S, Smallwood A, Hultén M (1995). "ATP-dependent reorganization of human sperm nuclear chromatin.". J. Cell. Sci. 108 ( Pt 2): 755–65. PMID 7769017. 
  • Ivanova VS, Hatch CL, Bonner WM (1994). "Characterization of the human histone H2A.X gene. Comparison of its promoter with other H2A gene promoters.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (39): 24189–94. PMID 7929075. 
  • Ivanova VS, Zimonjic D, Popescu N, Bonner WM (1994). "Chromosomal localization of the human histone H2A.X gene to 11q23.2-q23.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.". Hum. Genet. 94 (3): 303–6. PMID 8076949. 
  • Rogakou EP, Pilch DR, Orr AH; et al. (1998). "DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (10): 5858–68. PMID 9488723. 
  • El Kharroubi A, Piras G, Zensen R, Martin MA (1998). "Transcriptional activation of the integrated chromatin-associated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (5): 2535–44. PMID 9566873. 
  • Rogakou EP, Boon C, Redon C, Bonner WM (1999). "Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo.". J. Cell Biol. 146 (5): 905–16. PMID 10477747. 
  • Rogakou EP, Nieves-Neira W, Boon C; et al. (2000). "Initiation of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis induces phosphorylation of H2AX histone at serine 139.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (13): 9390–5. PMID 10734083. 
  • Paull TT, Rogakou EP, Yamazaki V; et al. (2001). "A critical role for histone H2AX in recruitment of repair factors to nuclear foci after DNA damage.". Curr. Biol. 10 (15): 886–95. PMID 10959836. 
  • Deng L, de la Fuente C, Fu P; et al. (2001). "Acetylation of HIV-1 Tat by CBP/P300 increases transcription of integrated HIV-1 genome and enhances binding to core histones.". Virology. 277 (2): 278–95. PMID 11080476. doi:10.1006/viro.2000.0593. 
  • Chen HT, Bhandoola A, Difilippantonio MJ; et al. (2000). "Response to RAG-mediated VDJ cleavage by NBS1 and gamma-H2AX.". Science. 290 (5498): 1962–5. PMID 11110662. 
  • Chadwick BP, Willard HF (2001). "Histone H2A variants and the inactive X chromosome: identification of a second macroH2A variant.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 (10): 1101–13. PMID 11331621. 
  • Burma S, Chen BP, Murphy M; et al. (2001). "ATM phosphorylates histone H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45): 42462–7. PMID 11571274. doi:10.1074/jbc.C100466200. 
  • Ward IM, Chen J (2002). "Histone H2AX is phosphorylated in an ATR-dependent manner in response to replicational stress.". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (51): 47759–62. PMID 11673449. doi:10.1074/jbc.C100569200. 
  • Deng L, Wang D, de la Fuente C; et al. (2001). "Enhancement of the p300 HAT activity by HIV-1 Tat on chromatin DNA.". Virology. 289 (2): 312–26. PMID 11689053. doi:10.1006/viro.2001.1129. 
  • Chen A, Kleiman FE, Manley JL; et al. (2002). "Autoubiquitination of the BRCA1*BARD1 RING ubiquitin ligase.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (24): 22085–92. PMID 11927591. doi:10.1074/jbc.M201252200. 
  • Zhu H, Hunter TC, Pan S; et al. (2003). "Residue-specific mass signatures for the efficient detection of protein modifications by mass spectrometry.". Anal. Chem. 74 (7): 1687–94. PMID 12033261.