Charles Chamberland (March 12, 1851 - May 2, 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur. In 1884 he developed a type of filtration known today as the Chamberland filter or Chamberland-Pasteur filter, constituting of an unglazed porcelain bar. This filter had pores that were smaller than bacteria, and made it possible to pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and have them completely removed from the solution. He was also credited for starting a research project that led to the invention of the autoclave device. He worked with Pasteur and came up, by chance, with a vaccine for chicken cholera. He went away on holiday, forgetting to inject the disease into some chickens as he had been told. When he came back he saw the jar of bacteria sitting on the side and thought he would inject it into the chickens anyway. To his amazement they did not die. He reported this to Pasteur, who told him to inject a fresh form into the chickens, they still did not die. He then went on to injecting the fresh form into new chickens, they did die. He had found a vaccine. They had also discocvered that a weakened form of a disease can act as a vaccine.