Brown-Sequard syndrome

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Synonyms and Keywords: Brown-Séquard's hemiplegia; Brown-Séquard's paralysis

Brown-Sequard syndrome
Cord.svg
Brown-Sequard syndrome is bottom diagram
ICD-10 G83.8
ICD-9 344.89
DiseasesDB 31117
MeSH D018437

Overview

'Brown-Séquard syndrome is a loss of motricity (paralysis and ataxia) and sensation caused by the lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. Other synonyms are crossed hemiplegia, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis and spinal hemiparaplegia.

Historical Perspective

It was first described in 1850 by the historically famous British neurologist Charles Édouard Brown-Sequard (1817-1896), who studied the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord. [1][2] Brown-Sequard was quite a controversial and eccentric figure, and is also known for self-reporting "rejuvinated sexual prowess after eating extracts of monkey testis". The response is now thought to have been a placebo effect, but apparently this was "sufficient to set the field of endocrinology off and running."[3]

Interestingly, many nations claim him as their own, he was the son of an American sea captain and a French woman, living in a British territory. He studied in the US, France, as well as the UK. He described this injury which resulted from caning knives trauma in Mauritius.

Classification

Pathophysiology

The hemisection of the cord results in a lesion of each of the three main neural systems:

As a result of the injury to these three main brain pathways the patient will present with three lesions.

  • The corticospinal lesion produces spastic paralysis on the same side of the body (the loss of moderation by the UMN).
  • The loss of the spinothalamic tract leads to pain and temperature sensation being lost from the contralateral side beginning one or two segments below the lesion. At the lesion site all sensory modalities are lost on the same side, and also an ipsilateral flaccid paralysis.

Causes

Brown-Sequard syndrome may be caused by a spinal cord tumor, trauma (such as a gunshot wound or puncture wound to the neck or back), ischemia (obstruction of a blood vessel), or infectious or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis, or multiple sclerosis.

Differentiating Brown-Sequard syndrome from Other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Prevention

References

  1. synd/973 at Who Named It
  2. C.-E. Brown-Séquard: De la transmission croisée des impressions sensitives par la moelle épinière. Comptes rendus de la Société de biologie, (1850)1851, 2: 33-44.
  3. The Practice of Neuroscience, p. 199-200, John C.M. Brust (2000).

de:Brown-Séquard-Syndrom



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