|Multiple of Base||10-3|
|System||SI, CGS, other|
|Common usage||Commonly used in cooking and food labeling|
|One millilitre of water is 1 g at 4 °C.|
Typical coins: a euro is 7.5 g and a US penny is 2.5 g
|SI||10 dg= 1 g = 0.1 dag = 0.001 kg|
|Imperial||1 g ≈ 0.0353 ounce ≈ 0.00220 pound|
|see also: Orders of magnitude (mass)|
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Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre, and at the temperature of melting ice" (later 4 °C), a gram is now defined as one one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10-3 kg, which itself is defined as being equal to the mass of a physical prototype preserved by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.
All masses are approximate:
- Plastic pen cap (Bic): 1 gram
- A single Smartie: 1 gram
- Paper clip: 0.5 grams to 1.5 grams
- 1 US banknote (any denomination): 1 gram
- 1 litre of air: 1.2 grams
- A teaspoon of salt: 4.745 grams
- Typical sheet of A4 paper: 5 grams (if 80 g/m²)
- United States nickel: 5 grams (very accurate when new)
The International System of Units abbreviation for the gram is g, and follows the numeric value with a space, as in "200 g". In some fields and regions, the international standard symbols for units are used quite strictly, in particular in technical and scientific publications and in legally regulated product labels. In other contexts (e.g., grocery market traders), a wide range of other abbreviations can also be encountered, such as gr, gm, grm, gms, grms.
The gram is today the most widely used unit of measurement for non-liquid ingredients in cooking and grocery shopping worldwide. For food products that are typically sold in quantities far less than 1 kg, the unit price is normally given per 100 g.
Most standards and legal requirements for nutrition labels on food products require relative contents to be stated per 100 g of the product, such that the resulting figure can also be read as a percentage.
Because SI prefixes may not be concatenated (serially linked) within the name or symbol for a unit of measure, SI prefixes are used with the gram, not the kilogram, which already has a prefix as part of its name. For instance, one-millionth of a kilogram is 1 mg (one milligram), not 1 µkg (one microkilogram).
|10–1 g||dg||decigram||101 g||dag||decagram|
|10–2 g||cg||centigram||102 g||hg||hectogram|
|10–3 g||mg||milligram||103 g||kg||kilogram|
|10–6 g||µg||microgram (mcg)||106 g||Mg||megagram (tonne)|
|10–9 g||ng||nanogram||109 g||Gg||gigagram|
|10–12 g||pg||picogram||1012 g||Tg||teragram|
|10–15 g||fg||femtogram||1015 g||Pg||petagram|
|10–18 g||ag||attogram||1018 g||Eg||exagram|
|10–21 g||zg||zeptogram||1021 g||Zg||zettagram|
|10–24 g||yg||yoctogram||1024 g||Yg||yottagram|
|Common prefixes are in bold face.|
- When the Greek lowercase “µ” (mu) in the symbol of microgram is typographically unavailable, it is occasionally—although not properly—replaced by Latin lowercase “u”.
- The microgram is often abbreviated “mcg”, particularly in pharmaceutical and nutritional supplement labeling, to avoid confusion since the “µ” prefix is not well recognized outside of technical disciplines. Note however, that the abbreviation “mcg”, is also the symbol for an obsolete CGS unit of measure known as the “millicentigram,” which is equal to 10 µg.
- The unit name “megagram” is rarely used, and even then, typically only in technical fields in contexts where especially rigorous consistency with the units of measure is desired. For most purposes, the term “tonne,” or “metric ton” is instead used. Further, whereas unit name “megatonne” or “megaton” (Mt) is often used in popular literature on global climate change, the equivalent value in scientific literature on the subject is the “teragram” (Tg).
- 1 grain = 0.06479891 gram
- 1 ounce (avoirdupois) = 28.349523125 grams
- 1 ounce (troy) = 31.1034768 grams
- ↑ Décret relatif aux poids et aux mesures, 1795
- ↑ Bureau of Engraving and Printing
- ↑ The United States Mint Coin Specifications
- ↑ SI brochure, Section 3.2
- ↑ NIST Special Publication 811
- ↑ NIST: SI prefixes (link to Web site).
- ↑ Criterion: A combined total of at least 250,000 Google hits on both the U.S. spelling (-gram) and the U.K./International spelling (-gramme).
- ↑ The practice of using the abbreviation “mcg” rather than the SI symbol “µg” was formally mandated for medical practitioners in 2004 by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) in their “Do Not Use” List: Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols because hand-written expressions of “µg” can be confused with “mg”, resulting in a thousand-fold overdosing. The mandate was also adopted by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices.
ar:جرام ast:Gramu be:Грам bg:Грам ca:Gram da:Gram (enhed) de:Gramm et:Gramm el:Γραμμάριοeo:Gramo fa:گرمko:그램 hi:ग्राम it:Grammo ku:Gram lt:Gramas hu:Gramm nl:Gram (eenheid)no:Gram nn:Gram nrm:Granmesimple:Gram sk:Gram sl:Gram sv:Gram th:กรัมuk:Грам ur:گرام yi:גראם (מאס) zh-yue:克
WikiDoc Research Resources for Gram
|Articles on Gram||Most recent articles on Gram • Most cited articles on Gram • Review articles on Gram • Articles on Gram in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ|
|Media (Slides, Video, Images, MP3) on Gram||Powerpoint slides on Gram • Images of Gram • Photos of Gram • Podcasts & MP3s on Gram • Videos on Gram|
|Evidence Based Medicine Regarding Gram||AND (Cochrane Database Syst Rev[http://worldselectshop.com/?id=9361 Cochrane Collaboration on Gram • Bandolier on Gram • TRIP on Gram|
|Cost Effectiveness of Gram||AND (Cost effectiveness)|
| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Gram | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Gram • NICE Guidance on Gram • NHS PRODIGY Guidance • FDA on Gram • CDC on Gram
| group7 = Textbook Information on Gram | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Gram
| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Gram | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Gram • AND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Gram • AND (side effects)}} Side effects of Gram • AND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Gram • AND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Gram • AND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Gram • AND (pregnancy)}} Gram in pregnancy • AND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Gram •
| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Gram | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Gram • AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Gram • AND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Gram
| group11 = Commentary on Gram | list11 = Blogs on Gram
| group12 = Patient Resources on Gram | list12 = Patient resources on Gram • Discussion groups on Gram • Patient Handouts on Gram • Directions to Hospitals Treating Gram • Risk calculators and risk factors for Gram
| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Gram | list14 = CME Programs on Gram
| group17 = Informatics Resources on Gram | list17 = List of terms related to Gram
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