Difference between revisions of "Endodermal sinus tumor"

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(Pathophysiology)
(Natural History, Complications and Prognosis)
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*Most [[children]] and [[young adults]] with endodermal sinus tumor have stage I.<ref>{{cite book | last = Weidner | first = Noel | title = Modern surgical pathology | publisher = Saunders/Elsevier | location = Philadelphia, PA | year = 2009 | isbn = 978-1-4160-3966-2 }}</ref>
 
*Most [[children]] and [[young adults]] with endodermal sinus tumor have stage I.<ref>{{cite book | last = Weidner | first = Noel | title = Modern surgical pathology | publisher = Saunders/Elsevier | location = Philadelphia, PA | year = 2009 | isbn = 978-1-4160-3966-2 }}</ref>
 
*[[Symptoms]] of endodermal sinus tumor may include the following:<ref name="www">{{cite book | last = Hoffman | first = Barbara | title = Williams gynecology | publisher = McGraw-Hill Medical | location = New York | year = 2012 | isbn = 9780071716727 }}</ref> <ref name="pmid6185892">{{cite journal| author=Gershenson DM, Del Junco G, Herson J, Rutledge FN| title=Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the M. D. Anderson experience. | journal=Obstet Gynecol | year= 1983 | volume= 61 | issue= 2 | pages= 194-202 | pmid=6185892 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6185892  }} </ref>
 
*[[Symptoms]] of endodermal sinus tumor may include the following:<ref name="www">{{cite book | last = Hoffman | first = Barbara | title = Williams gynecology | publisher = McGraw-Hill Medical | location = New York | year = 2012 | isbn = 9780071716727 }}</ref> <ref name="pmid6185892">{{cite journal| author=Gershenson DM, Del Junco G, Herson J, Rutledge FN| title=Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the M. D. Anderson experience. | journal=Obstet Gynecol | year= 1983 | volume= 61 | issue= 2 | pages= 194-202 | pmid=6185892 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6185892  }} </ref>
 +
 
:*[[Abdominal distention]]
 
:*[[Abdominal distention]]
:*Acute/sub acute [[abdominal pain]]
+
:*[[Acute]]/sub acute [[abdominal pain]]
 
=== Physical Examination ===
 
=== Physical Examination ===
 
*[[Patient|Patients]] with endodermal sinus tumor usually appear normal.
 
*[[Patient|Patients]] with endodermal sinus tumor usually appear normal.

Revision as of 15:52, 14 November 2019

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Gertrude Djouka, M.D.[2]; Monalisa Dmello, M.B,B.S., M.D. [3]; Shivali Marketkar, M.B.B.S. [4]; Ammu Susheela, M.D. [5]

For patient information, click here Synonyms and Keywords: Endodermal sinus tumor(EST), yolk sac tumor.

Overview

Endodermal sinus tumor was first discovered by Dr. Gunner Telium, a Danish pathologist, in 1959. The hypermethylation of the RUNX3 gene promoter and overexpression of GATA-4, a transcription factor has been associated with the development of endodermal sinus tumor. Endodermal sinus tumor is a rare type of malignant ovarian tumor that occurs in the second decade of life. On gross pathology, a solid gray-white with gelatinous, myxoid, or mucoid appearance, necrosis, cystic changes, and hemorrhage are characteristic findings of endodermal sinus tumor. On microscopic histopathological analysis, Schiller-Duval bodies is a characteristic finding of endodermal sinus tumor. Endodermal sinus tumor must be differentiated from other diseases that cause pelvic mass, such as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, and seminoma. In 2015, the incidence of endodermal sinus tumor is estimated to less than 1/100,000 case per year in U.S. Endodermal sinus tumor may be classified according to histology groups.The diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor is made based on the imaging (U/S and MRI) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) tumor marker greater than 100 ng/ml. Endodermal sinus tumor have a bimodal distribution more commonly observed among young and adult population. The symptoms of endodermal sinus tumor include the followings: abdominal distention, acute/sub acute abdominal pain. Endodermal sinus tumor is treated with surgery depending on the tumor marker and imaging as well as fertility desired.The medical therapy for endodermal sinus tumor is chemotherapy such as bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for 3 to 4 cycles for 21 days.

Historical Perspective

  • Endodermal sinus tumor was first discovered by Dr. Gunner Telium, a Danish pathologist in 1959.[1][2]

Classification

  • Endodermal sinus tumor may be classified according to histology into 10 groups:[3]

Pathophysiology

  • The hypermethylation of the RUNX3 gene promoter and overexpression of GATA-4, a transcription factor has been associated with the development of endodermal sinus tumor.[4]
  • Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor may be result of differentiation of primitive malignant germ cell components of vitelline structures.[5]
  • On gross pathology, encaptulated, firm, smooth, round, globular, solid gray-white with a gelatinous, myxoid, or mucoid appearance, necrosis, cystic changes, and hemorrhage are characteristic findings of endodermal sinus tumor.[6]
  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, Schiller-Duval bodies (invaginated papillary structures with central vessel) is a characteristic finding of endodermal sinus tumor. The tumors are composed of irregular space lined by flattened to cuboidal cells and recticular stroma[7].[8]

Causes

  • There are no established causes for endodermal sinus tumor.[9]

Differentiating Endodermal sinus tumor from Other Diseases

Endodermal sinus tumor must be differentiated from other diseases that cause pelvic mass, abdominal pain and abdominal distention such as:[10][11]

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • In 2015, the incidence of endodermal sinus tumor is estimated to less than 1/100,000 case per year in U.S.[12]

Age

Gender

  • Endodermal sinus tumor affects men and women equally.[14]

Race

  • There is no racial predilection for endodermal sinus tumor.

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic criteria

Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Stage I endodermal sinus tumor

Stage II endodermal sinus tumor

Stage III endodermal sinus tumor

Stage IV endodermal sinus tumor

Prevention

  • There are no primary preventive measures available for endodermal sinus tumor.

Video

References

  1. Carmen, Marcela (2015). Uncommon gynecologic cancers. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-65535-1.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shah JP, Kumar S, Bryant CS, Ali-Fehmi R, Malone JM, Deppe G; et al. (2008). "A population-based analysis of 788 cases of yolk sac tumors: A comparison of males and females". Int J Cancer. 123 (11): 2671–5. doi:10.1002/ijc.23792. PMID 18767035.
  3. Weidner, Noel (2009). Modern surgical pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4160-3966-2.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kato N, Tamura G, Fukase M, Shibuya H, Motoyama T (2003). "Hypermethylation of the RUNX3 gene promoter in testicular yolk sac tumor of infants". Am J Pathol. 163 (2): 387–91. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63668-1. PMC 1868235. PMID 12875960.
  5. Crum, Christopher (2018). Diagnostic gynecologic and obstetric pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, Inc. ISBN 978-0-323-44732-4.
  6. Carmen, Marcela (2015). Uncommon gynecologic cancers. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-65535-1.
  7. Carmen, Marcela (2015). Uncommon gynecologic cancers. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-65535-1.
  8. Kurman RJ, Norris HJ (1976). "Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: a clinical and pathologic analysis of 71 cases". Cancer. 38 (6): 2404–19. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197612)38:6<2404::aid-cncr2820380629>3.0.co;2-3. PMID 63318.
  9. Makris, Georgios-Marios (2017). "Giving Birth After Fertility Sparing Treatment for a Yolk Sac Tumour: Case Report". JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2017/25820.10524. ISSN 2249-782X.
  10. Shaaban AM, Rezvani M, Elsayes KM, et al. Ovarian malignant germ cell tumors: cellular classification and clinical and imaging features. Radiographics. 2014;34(3):777-801.http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/pdf/10.1148/rg.343130067
  11. Jung SE, Lee JM, Rha SE, Byun JY, Jung JI, Hahn ST. CT and MR imaging of ovarian tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 2002;22(6):1305-25.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12432104
  12. Young JL, Miller RW (1975). "Incidence of malignant tumors in U. S. children". J Pediatr. 86 (2): 254–8. doi:10.1016/s0022-3476(75)80484-7. PMID 1111694.
  13. Coppes MJ, Rackley R, Kay R (1994). "Primary testicular and paratesticular tumors of childhood". Med Pediatr Oncol. 22 (5): 329–40. PMID 8127257.
  14. "Endodermal Sinus Tumor - St. Jude Children's Research Hospital".
  15. 15.0 15.1 Jung SE, Lee JM, Rha SE, Byun JY, Jung JI, Hahn ST (2002). "CT and MR imaging of ovarian tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis". Radiographics. 22 (6): 1305–25. doi:10.1148/rg.226025033. PMID 12432104.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Hung JH, Shen SH, Hung J, Lai CR (2007). "Ultrasound and magnetic resonance images of endodermal sinus tumor". J Chin Med Assoc. 70 (11): 514–8. doi:10.1016/S1726-4901(08)70052-2. PMID 18063508.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "Definition of endodermal sinus tumor - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute".
  18. Saia, Philip (2018). Clinical gynecologic oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-40067-1.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Talerman A, Haije WG, Baggerman L (1980). "Serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) in patients with germ cell tumors of the gonads and extragonadal sites: correlation between endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor and raised serum AFP". Cancer. 46 (2): 380–5. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19800715)46:2<380::aid-cncr2820460228>3.0.co;2-u. PMID 6155988.
  20. Saia, Philip (2018). Clinical gynecologic oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-40067-1.
  21. Chen, Li Hsun; Yip, Kui-Chuen; Wu, Hsing-Ju; Yong, Su-Boon (2019). "Yolk Sac Tumor in an Eight-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report and Literature Review". Frontiers in Pediatrics. 7. doi:10.3389/fped.2019.00169. ISSN 2296-2360.
  22. Weidner, Noel (2009). Modern surgical pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4160-3966-2.
  23. Hoffman, Barbara (2012). Williams gynecology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071716727.
  24. Gershenson DM, Del Junco G, Herson J, Rutledge FN (1983). "Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the M. D. Anderson experience". Obstet Gynecol. 61 (2): 194–202. PMID 6185892.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Hoffman, Barbara (2012). Williams gynecology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 9780071716727.
  26. Crum, Christopher (2018). Diagnostic gynecologic and obstetric pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, Inc. ISBN 978-0-323-44732-4.
  27. Siltanen S, Anttonen M, Heikkilä P, Narita N, Laitinen M, Ritvos O; et al. (1999). "Transcription factor GATA-4 is expressed in pediatric yolk sac tumors". Am J Pathol. 155 (6): 1823–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65500-9. PMC 1866939. PMID 10595911.
  28. "NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Endodermal sinus tumor. National comprehensive cancer network, 2017; https://www.nccn.org/patients/guidelines/content/PDF/ovarian.pdf."
  29. Williams S, Blessing JA, Liao SY, Ball H, Hanjani P (1994). "Adjuvant therapy of ovarian germ cell tumors with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin: a trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group". J Clin Oncol. 12 (4): 701–6. doi:10.1200/JCO.1994.12.4.701. PMID 7512129.
  30. "NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Endodermal sinus tumor. National comprehensive cancer network, 2017; https://www.nccn.org/patients/guidelines/content/PDF/ovarian.pdf."
  31. Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors . http://www.cancer.gov/types/ovarian/hp/ovarian-germ-cell-treatment-pdq#section/_33. URL Accessed on Nov 5, 2015
  32. Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors . http://www.cancer.gov/types/ovarian/hp/ovarian-germ-cell-treatment-pdq#section/_54. URL Accessed on Nov 5, 2015
  33. Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors . http://www.cancer.gov/types/ovarian/hp/ovarian-germ-cell-treatment-pdq#section/_65. URL Accessed on Nov 5, 2015
  34. "Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) - PDQ Cancer Information Summaries - NCBI Bookshelf".

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