Chromosome 19 (human)
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Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 19 spans more than 63 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents between 2 and 2.5 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 19 likely contains between 1,300 and 1,700 genes.
The following are some of the genes located on chromosome 19:
- APOE: Apolipoprotein E
- BCKDHA: Branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide (maple syrup urine disease)
- DMPK: Dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase
- GCDH: Glutaryl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase
- HAMP: Hepcidin antimicrobial peptide
- MCPH2: microcephaly, primary autosomal recessive 2
- NOTCH3: Notch homolog 3 (Drosophila)
- PRX: Periaxin
- SLC5A5: Solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter), member 5
- STK11: Serine/threonine kinase 11 (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome)
- EYCL1: EYE COLOR 1; EYE COLOR, GREEN/BLUE; GEY. Gene map locus 19p13.1-q13.11
- HCL1: HAIR COLOR 1; BROWN HAIR COLOR; BRHC. Gene map locus 19p13.1-q13.11[]
Diseases & disorders
The following diseases are some of those related to genes on chromosome 19:
- Alzheimer disease
- Centronuclear myopathy autosomal dominant form
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
- Congenital hypothyroidism
- Glutaric acidemia type 1
- Maple syrup urine disease
- Myotonic dystrophy
- Myotubular myopathy autosomal dominant form
- Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
- Spinocerebellar ataxia type-6
- Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 19". Genet Test 1 (2): 145-9. PMID 10464639.
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