Difference between revisions of "Brain tumor"

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! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Adult primary brain tumors
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Adult primary brain tumors
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Glioblastoma multiforme]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Glioblastoma multiforme]]<br><ref name="pmid17964028">{{cite journal |vauthors=Sathornsumetee S, Rich JN, Reardon DA |title=Diagnosis and treatment of high-grade astrocytoma |journal=Neurol Clin |volume=25 |issue=4 |pages=1111–39, x |date=November 2007 |pmid=17964028 |doi=10.1016/j.ncl.2007.07.004 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid22819718">{{cite journal |vauthors=Pedersen CL, Romner B |title=Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma: a review |journal=Clin Neurol Neurosurg |volume=115 |issue=1 |pages=1–8 |date=January 2013 |pmid=22819718 |doi=10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.07.002 |url=}}</ref><ref name=":0">{{cite book | last = Mattle | first = Heinrich | title = Fundamentals of neurology : an illustrated guide | publisher = Thieme | location = Stuttgart New York | year = 2017 | isbn = 9783131364524 }}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* Most of the time, focal [[neurological]] deficit is the presenting [[Sign (medical)|sign]].
 
* Most of the time, focal [[neurological]] deficit is the presenting [[Sign (medical)|sign]].
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Oligodendroglioma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Oligodendroglioma]]<br><ref name="pmid26849038">{{cite journal |vauthors=Smits M |title=Imaging of oligodendroglioma |journal=Br J Radiol |volume=89 |issue=1060 |pages=20150857 |date=2016 |pmid=26849038 |pmc=4846213 |doi=10.1259/bjr.20150857 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid25943885">{{cite journal |vauthors=Wesseling P, van den Bent M, Perry A |title=Oligodendroglioma: pathology, molecular mechanisms and markers |journal=Acta Neuropathol. |volume=129 |issue=6 |pages=809–27 |date=June 2015 |pmid=25943885 |pmc=4436696 |doi=10.1007/s00401-015-1424-1 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid26478444">{{cite journal |vauthors=Kerkhof M, Benit C, Duran-Pena A, Vecht CJ |title=Seizures in oligodendroglial tumors |journal=CNS Oncol |volume=4 |issue=5 |pages=347–56 |date=2015 |pmid=26478444 |pmc=6082346 |doi=10.2217/cns.15.29 |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
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* Most of the time, [[epileptic seizure]] is the presenting [[Sign (medicine)|sign]].
 
* Most of the time, [[epileptic seizure]] is the presenting [[Sign (medicine)|sign]].
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Meningioma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Meningioma]]<br><ref name="pmid1642904">{{cite journal |vauthors=Zee CS, Chin T, Segall HD, Destian S, Ahmadi J |title=Magnetic resonance imaging of meningiomas |journal=Semin. Ultrasound CT MR |volume=13 |issue=3 |pages=154–69 |date=June 1992 |pmid=1642904 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid25744347">{{cite journal |vauthors=Shibuya M |title=Pathology and molecular genetics of meningioma: recent advances |journal=Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) |volume=55 |issue=1 |pages=14–27 |date=2015 |pmid=25744347 |doi=10.2176/nmc.ra.2014-0233 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17509660">{{cite journal |vauthors=Begnami MD, Palau M, Rushing EJ, Santi M, Quezado M |title=Evaluation of NF2 gene deletion in sporadic schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas by chromogenic in situ hybridization |journal=Hum. Pathol. |volume=38 |issue=9 |pages=1345–50 |date=September 2007 |pmid=17509660 |pmc=2094208 |doi=10.1016/j.humpath.2007.01.027 |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* May be associated with [[Neurofibromatosis type II|NF-2]]
 
* May be associated with [[Neurofibromatosis type II|NF-2]]
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Hemangioblastoma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Hemangioblastoma]]<br><ref name="pmid24579662">{{cite journal |vauthors=Lonser RR, Butman JA, Huntoon K, Asthagiri AR, Wu T, Bakhtian KD, Chew EY, Zhuang Z, Linehan WM, Oldfield EH |title=Prospective natural history study of central nervous system hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau disease |journal=J. Neurosurg. |volume=120 |issue=5 |pages=1055–62 |date=May 2014 |pmid=24579662 |pmc=4762041 |doi=10.3171/2014.1.JNS131431 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17877533">{{cite journal |vauthors=Hussein MR |title=Central nervous system capillary haemangioblastoma: the pathologist's viewpoint |journal=Int J Exp Pathol |volume=88 |issue=5 |pages=311–24 |date=October 2007 |pmid=17877533 |pmc=2517334 |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2613.2007.00535.x |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid2704812">{{cite journal |vauthors=Lee SR, Sanches J, Mark AS, Dillon WP, Norman D, Newton TH |title=Posterior fossa hemangioblastomas: MR imaging |journal=Radiology |volume=171 |issue=2 |pages=463–8 |date=May 1989 |pmid=2704812 |doi=10.1148/radiology.171.2.2704812 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid945331">{{cite journal |vauthors=Perks WH, Cross JN, Sivapragasam S, Johnson P |title=Supratentorial haemangioblastoma with polycythaemia |journal=J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry |volume=39 |issue=3 |pages=218–20 |date=March 1976 |pmid=945331 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* May be associated with [[Von Hippel-Lindau Disease|von hippel-lindau syndrome]]
 
* May be associated with [[Von Hippel-Lindau Disease|von hippel-lindau syndrome]]
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Pituitary adenoma]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Pituitary adenoma]]<br><ref name="pmid3786729">{{cite journal |vauthors=Kucharczyk W, Davis DO, Kelly WM, Sze G, Norman D, Newton TH |title=Pituitary adenomas: high-resolution MR imaging at 1.5 T |journal=Radiology |volume=161 |issue=3 |pages=761–5 |date=December 1986 |pmid=3786729 |doi=10.1148/radiology.161.3.3786729 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid22584705">{{cite journal |vauthors=Syro LV, Scheithauer BW, Kovacs K, Toledo RA, Londoño FJ, Ortiz LD, Rotondo F, Horvath E, Uribe H |title=Pituitary tumors in patients with MEN1 syndrome |journal=Clinics (Sao Paulo) |volume=67 Suppl 1 |issue= |pages=43–8 |date=2012 |pmid=22584705 |pmc=3328811 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
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*  
 
*  
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Schwannoma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Schwannoma]]<br><ref name="DonnellyDaly2007">{{cite journal|last1=Donnelly|first1=Martin J.|last2=Daly|first2=Carmel A.|last3=Briggs|first3=Robert J. S.|title=MR imaging features of an intracochlear acoustic schwannoma|journal=The Journal of Laryngology & Otology|volume=108|issue=12|year=2007|issn=0022-2151|doi=10.1017/S0022215100129056}}</ref><ref name="pmid9639114">{{cite journal |vauthors=Feany MB, Anthony DC, Fletcher CD |title=Nerve sheath tumours with hybrid features of neurofibroma and schwannoma: a conceptual challenge |journal=Histopathology |volume=32 |issue=5 |pages=405–10 |date=May 1998 |pmid=9639114 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid28710469">{{cite journal |vauthors=Chen H, Xue L, Wang H, Wang Z, Wu H |title=Differential NF2 Gene Status in Sporadic Vestibular Schwannomas and its Prognostic Impact on Tumour Growth Patterns |journal=Sci Rep |volume=7 |issue=1 |pages=5470 |date=July 2017 |pmid=28710469 |doi=10.1038/s41598-017-05769-0 |url=}}</ref><ref name="HardellHansson Mild2003">{{cite journal|last1=Hardell|first1=Lennart|last2=Hansson Mild|first2=Kjell|last3=Sandström|first3=Monica|last4=Carlberg|first4=Michael|last5=Hallquist|first5=Arne|last6=Påhlson|first6=Anneli|title=Vestibular Schwannoma, Tinnitus and Cellular Telephones|journal=Neuroepidemiology|volume=22|issue=2|year=2003|pages=124–129|issn=0251-5350|doi=10.1159/000068745}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | −
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* May be associated with [[Neurofibromatosis type II|NF-2]] (bilateral [[Schwannoma|schwannomas]])
 
* May be associated with [[Neurofibromatosis type II|NF-2]] (bilateral [[Schwannoma|schwannomas]])
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Primary central nervous system lymphoma|Primary CNS lymphoma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Primary central nervous system lymphoma|Primary CNS lymphoma]]<br><ref name="pmid7480733">{{cite journal |vauthors=Chinn RJ, Wilkinson ID, Hall-Craggs MA, Paley MN, Miller RF, Kendall BE, Newman SP, Harrison MJ |title=Toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma in HIV infection: diagnosis with MR spectroscopy |journal=Radiology |volume=197 |issue=3 |pages=649–54 |date=December 1995 |pmid=7480733 |doi=10.1148/radiology.197.3.7480733 |url=}}</ref><ref name="Paulus19992">{{cite journal|last1=Paulus|first1=Werner|journal=Journal of Neuro-Oncology|title=Classification, Pathogenesis and Molecular Pathology of Primary CNS Lymphomas|volume=43|issue=3|year=1999|pages=203–208|issn=0167594X|doi=10.1023/A:1006242116122}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Childhood primary brain tumors
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Childhood primary brain tumors
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Pilocytic astrocytoma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Pilocytic astrocytoma]]<br><ref name="pmid179640282">{{cite journal |vauthors=Sathornsumetee S, Rich JN, Reardon DA |title=Diagnosis and treatment of high-grade astrocytoma |journal=Neurol Clin |volume=25 |issue=4 |pages=1111–39, x |date=November 2007 |pmid=17964028 |doi=10.1016/j.ncl.2007.07.004 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid228197182">{{cite journal |vauthors=Pedersen CL, Romner B |title=Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma: a review |journal=Clin Neurol Neurosurg |volume=115 |issue=1 |pages=1–8 |date=January 2013 |pmid=22819718 |doi=10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.07.002 |url=}}</ref><ref name=":02">{{cite book | last = Mattle | first = Heinrich | title = Fundamentals of neurology : an illustrated guide | publisher = Thieme | location = Stuttgart New York | year = 2017 | isbn = 9783131364524 }}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* Most of the time, [[Cerebellum|cerebellar]] dysfunction is the presenting [[signs]].
 
* Most of the time, [[Cerebellum|cerebellar]] dysfunction is the presenting [[signs]].
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Medulloblastoma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Medulloblastoma]]<br><ref name="DorwartWara1981">{{cite journal|last1=Dorwart|first1=R H|last2=Wara|first2=W M|last3=Norman|first3=D|last4=Levin|first4=V A|title=Complete myelographic evaluation of spinal metastases from medulloblastoma.|journal=Radiology|volume=139|issue=2|year=1981|pages=403–408|issn=0033-8419|doi=10.1148/radiology.139.2.7220886}}</ref><ref name="Fruehwald-PallamarPuchner2011">{{cite journal|last1=Fruehwald-Pallamar|first1=Julia|last2=Puchner|first2=Stefan B.|last3=Rossi|first3=Andrea|last4=Garre|first4=Maria L.|last5=Cama|first5=Armando|last6=Koelblinger|first6=Claus|last7=Osborn|first7=Anne G.|last8=Thurnher|first8=Majda M.|title=Magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of medulloblastoma|journal=Neuroradiology|volume=53|issue=6|year=2011|pages=387–396|issn=0028-3940|doi=10.1007/s00234-010-0829-8}}</ref><ref name="BurgerGrahmann1987">{{cite journal|last1=Burger|first1=P. C.|last2=Grahmann|first2=F. C.|last3=Bliestle|first3=A.|last4=Kleihues|first4=P.|title=Differentiation in the medulloblastoma|journal=Acta Neuropathologica|volume=73|issue=2|year=1987|pages=115–123|issn=0001-6322|doi=10.1007/BF00693776}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* [[Drop metastasis]] ([[metastasis]] through [[CSF]])
 
* [[Drop metastasis]] ([[metastasis]] through [[CSF]])
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Ependymoma]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Ependymoma]]<br><ref name="YuhBarkovich2009">{{cite journal|last1=Yuh|first1=E. L.|last2=Barkovich|first2=A. J.|last3=Gupta|first3=N.|title=Imaging of ependymomas: MRI and CT|journal=Child's Nervous System|volume=25|issue=10|year=2009|pages=1203–1213|issn=0256-7040|doi=10.1007/s00381-009-0878-7}}</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* Causes an unusually persistent, continuous [[headache]] in children.
 
* Causes an unusually persistent, continuous [[headache]] in children.
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Craniopharyngioma]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Craniopharyngioma]]<br><ref name="pmid12407316">{{cite journal |vauthors=Brunel H, Raybaud C, Peretti-Viton P, Lena G, Girard N, Paz-Paredes A, Levrier O, Farnarier P, Manera L, Choux M |title=[Craniopharyngioma in children: MRI study of 43 cases] |language=French |journal=Neurochirurgie |volume=48 |issue=4 |pages=309–18 |date=September 2002 |pmid=12407316 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="PrabhuBrown2005">{{cite journal|last1=Prabhu|first1=Vikram C.|last2=Brown|first2=Henry G.|title=The pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas|journal=Child's Nervous System|volume=21|issue=8-9|year=2005|pages=622–627|issn=0256-7040|doi=10.1007/s00381-005-1190-9}}</ref><ref name="pmid766825">{{cite journal |vauthors=Kennedy HB, Smith RJ |title=Eye signs in craniopharyngioma |journal=Br J Ophthalmol |volume=59 |issue=12 |pages=689–95 |date=December 1975 |pmid=766825 |pmc=1017436 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
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* Initialy presents with lower bitemporal quadrantanopsia followed by [[Bitemporal hemianopia|bitemporal hemianopsia]] (pressure on [[Optic chiasm|optic chiasma]] from above)
 
* Initialy presents with lower bitemporal quadrantanopsia followed by [[Bitemporal hemianopia|bitemporal hemianopsia]] (pressure on [[Optic chiasm|optic chiasma]] from above)
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Pinealoma]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Pinealoma]]<br><ref name="pmid6625640">{{cite journal |vauthors=Ahmed SR, Shalet SM, Price DA, Pearson D |title=Human chorionic gonadotrophin secreting pineal germinoma and precocious puberty |journal=Arch. Dis. Child. |volume=58 |issue=9 |pages=743–5 |date=September 1983 |pmid=6625640 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="Sano1976">{{cite journal|last1=Sano|first1=Keiji|title=Pinealoma in Children|journal=Pediatric Neurosurgery|volume=2|issue=1|year=1976|pages=67–72|issn=1016-2291|doi=10.1159/000119602}}</ref><ref name="Baggenstoss1939">{{cite journal|last1=Baggenstoss|first1=Archie H.|title=PINEALOMAS|journal=Archives of Neurology And Psychiatry|volume=41|issue=6|year=1939|pages=1187|issn=0096-6754|doi=10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270180115011}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 346: Line 346:
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Vascular
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Vascular
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Arteriovenous malformation|AV malformation]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Arteriovenous malformation|AV malformation]]<br><ref name="KucharczykLemme-Pleghos1985">{{cite journal|last1=Kucharczyk|first1=W|last2=Lemme-Pleghos|first2=L|last3=Uske|first3=A|last4=Brant-Zawadzki|first4=M|last5=Dooms|first5=G|last6=Norman|first6=D|title=Intracranial vascular malformations: MR and CT imaging.|journal=Radiology|volume=156|issue=2|year=1985|pages=383–389|issn=0033-8419|doi=10.1148/radiology.156.2.4011900}}</ref><ref name="FleetwoodSteinberg2002">{{cite journal|last1=Fleetwood|first1=Ian G|last2=Steinberg|first2=Gary K|title=Arteriovenous malformations|journal=The Lancet|volume=359|issue=9309|year=2002|pages=863–873|issn=01406736|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07946-1}}</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
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* We may see bag of worms appearance in [[CT angiography]]
 
* We may see bag of worms appearance in [[CT angiography]]
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Brain aneurysm]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Brain aneurysm]]<br><ref name="ChapmanRubinstein1992">{{cite journal|last1=Chapman|first1=Arlene B.|last2=Rubinstein|first2=David|last3=Hughes|first3=Richard|last4=Stears|first4=John C.|last5=Earnest|first5=Michael P.|last6=Johnson|first6=Ann M.|last7=Gabow|first7=Patricia A.|last8=Kaehny|first8=William D.|title=Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease|journal=New England Journal of Medicine|volume=327|issue=13|year=1992|pages=916–920|issn=0028-4793|doi=10.1056/NEJM199209243271303}}</ref><ref name="pmid25632331">{{cite journal |vauthors=Castori M, Voermans NC |title=Neurological manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s): A review |journal=Iran J Neurol |volume=13 |issue=4 |pages=190–208 |date=October 2014 |pmid=25632331 |pmc=4300794 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="SchievinkRaissi2010">{{cite journal|last1=Schievink|first1=W. I.|last2=Raissi|first2=S. S.|last3=Maya|first3=M. M.|last4=Velebir|first4=A.|title=Screening for intracranial aneurysms in patients with bicuspid aortic valve|journal=Neurology|volume=74|issue=18|year=2010|pages=1430–1433|issn=0028-3878|doi=10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dc1acf}}</ref><ref name="pmid28486967">{{cite journal |vauthors=Germain DP |title=Pseudoxanthoma elasticum |journal=Orphanet J Rare Dis |volume=12 |issue=1 |pages=85 |date=May 2017 |pmid=28486967 |pmc=5424392 |doi=10.1186/s13023-017-0639-8 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid27162847">{{cite journal |vauthors=Farahmand M, Farahangiz S, Yadollahi M |title=Diagnostic Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Detection of Intracranial Aneurysms in Patients with Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; A Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography |journal=Bull Emerg Trauma |volume=1 |issue=4 |pages=147–51 |date=October 2013 |pmid=27162847 |pmc=4789449 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 382: Line 382:
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Infectious
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Infectious
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Bacterial [[brain abscess]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Bacterial [[brain abscess]]<br><ref name="HaimesZimmerman1989">{{cite journal|last1=Haimes|first1=AB|last2=Zimmerman|first2=RD|last3=Morgello|first3=S|last4=Weingarten|first4=K|last5=Becker|first5=RD|last6=Jennis|first6=R|last7=Deck|first7=MD|title=MR imaging of brain abscesses|journal=American Journal of Roentgenology|volume=152|issue=5|year=1989|pages=1073–1085|issn=0361-803X|doi=10.2214/ajr.152.5.1073}}</ref><ref name="BrouwerTunkel2014">{{cite journal|last1=Brouwer|first1=Matthijs C.|last2=Tunkel|first2=Allan R.|last3=McKhann|first3=Guy M.|last4=van de Beek|first4=Diederik|title=Brain Abscess|journal=New England Journal of Medicine|volume=371|issue=5|year=2014|pages=447–456|issn=0028-4793|doi=10.1056/NEJMra1301635}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 402: Line 402:
 
* The most common causes of [[brain abscess]] are [[Streptococcus]] and [[Staphylococcus]].
 
* The most common causes of [[brain abscess]] are [[Streptococcus]] and [[Staphylococcus]].
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Tuberculosis]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Tuberculosis]]<br><ref name="MorgadoRuivo2005">{{cite journal|last1=Morgado|first1=Carlos|last2=Ruivo|first2=Nuno|title=Imaging meningo-encephalic tuberculosis|journal=European Journal of Radiology|volume=55|issue=2|year=2005|pages=188–192|issn=0720048X|doi=10.1016/j.ejrad.2005.04.017}}</ref><ref name=":0" /><ref name="pmid19275620">{{cite journal |vauthors=Be NA, Kim KS, Bishai WR, Jain SK |title=Pathogenesis of central nervous system tuberculosis |journal=Curr. Mol. Med. |volume=9 |issue=2 |pages=94–9 |date=March 2009 |pmid=19275620 |pmc=4486069 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 423: Line 423:
 
* It is associated with [[HIV]] [[infection]]
 
* It is associated with [[HIV]] [[infection]]
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Toxoplasmosis]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Toxoplasmosis]]<br><ref name="pmid74807332">{{cite journal |vauthors=Chinn RJ, Wilkinson ID, Hall-Craggs MA, Paley MN, Miller RF, Kendall BE, Newman SP, Harrison MJ |title=Toxoplasmosis and primary central nervous system lymphoma in HIV infection: diagnosis with MR spectroscopy |journal=Radiology |volume=197 |issue=3 |pages=649–54 |date=December 1995 |pmid=7480733 |doi=10.1148/radiology.197.3.7480733 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid27348541">{{cite journal |vauthors=Helton KJ, Maron G, Mamcarz E, Leventaki V, Patay Z, Sadighi Z |title=Unusual magnetic resonance imaging presentation of post-BMT cerebral toxoplasmosis masquerading as meningoencephalitis and ventriculitis |journal=Bone Marrow Transplant. |volume=51 |issue=11 |pages=1533–1536 |date=November 2016 |pmid=27348541 |doi=10.1038/bmt.2016.168 |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 441: Line 441:
 
* It is associated with [[HIV]] [[infection]]
 
* It is associated with [[HIV]] [[infection]]
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Hydatid cyst]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Hydatid cyst]]<br><ref name="pmid27620198">{{cite journal |vauthors=Taslakian B, Darwish H |title=Intracranial hydatid cyst: imaging findings of a rare disease |journal=BMJ Case Rep |volume=2016 |issue= |pages= |date=September 2016 |pmid=27620198 |pmc=5030532 |doi=10.1136/bcr-2016-216570 |url=}}</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 459: Line 459:
 
* [[Brain]], [[eye]], and [[Spleen|splenic]] [[Cyst|cysts]] may not produce detectable amount of [[antibodies]]
 
* [[Brain]], [[eye]], and [[Spleen|splenic]] [[Cyst|cysts]] may not produce detectable amount of [[antibodies]]
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[CNS]] [[cryptococcosis]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[CNS]] [[cryptococcosis]]<br><ref name="pmid25006721">{{cite journal |vauthors=McCarthy M, Rosengart A, Schuetz AN, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ |title=Mold infections of the central nervous system |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=371 |issue=2 |pages=150–60 |date=July 2014 |pmid=25006721 |pmc=4840461 |doi=10.1056/NEJMra1216008 |url=}}</ref>  
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 488: Line 488:
 
* Since [[brain]] [[Biopsy|biopsies]] are highly invasive and may may cause [[neurological]] deficits, we [[diagnose]] [[CNS]] [[fungal]] [[Infection|infections]] based on [[laboratory]] and imaging findings
 
* Since [[brain]] [[Biopsy|biopsies]] are highly invasive and may may cause [[neurological]] deficits, we [[diagnose]] [[CNS]] [[fungal]] [[Infection|infections]] based on [[laboratory]] and imaging findings
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[CNS]] [[aspergillosis]]<br>
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[CNS]] [[aspergillosis]]<br><ref name="pmid250067212">{{cite journal |vauthors=McCarthy M, Rosengart A, Schuetz AN, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ |title=Mold infections of the central nervous system |journal=N. Engl. J. Med. |volume=371 |issue=2 |pages=150–60 |date=July 2014 |pmid=25006721 |pmc=4840461 |doi=10.1056/NEJMra1216008 |url=}}</ref>
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
Line 514: Line 514:
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Other
 
! colspan="11" style="background: #7d7d7d; color: #FFFFFF; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |Other
 
|-
 
|-
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Brain metastasis]]<br><ref name=":0" />
+
| style="background: #DCDCDC; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" |[[Brain metastasis]]<br><ref name="pmid29307364">{{cite journal |vauthors=Pope WB |title=Brain metastases: neuroimaging |journal=Handb Clin Neurol |volume=149 |issue= |pages=89–112 |date=2018 |pmid=29307364 |pmc=6118134 |doi=10.1016/B978-0-12-811161-1.00007-4 |url=}}</ref><ref name=":0" />
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−
 
| style="background: #F5F5F5; padding: 5px; text-align: center;" | +/−

Revision as of 15:42, 17 October 2019


Brain tumor
Hirnmetastase MRT-T1 KM.jpg
CT scan of brain showing brain cancer to left parietal lobe in the peri-ventricular area.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hirnmetastase_MRT-T1_KM.jpg

Brain tumor Microchapters

Patient Information

Overview

Classification

Adult brain tumors
Glioblastoma multiforme
Oligodendroglioma
Meningioma
Hemangioblastoma
Pituitary adenoma
Schwannoma
Primary CNS lymphoma
Childhood brain tumors
Pilocytic astrocytoma
Medulloblastoma
Ependymoma
Craniopharyngioma
Pinealoma
Metastasis
Lung cancer
Breast cancer
Melanoma
Gastrointestinal tract cancer
Renal cell carcinoma
Osteoblastoma
Head and neck cancer
Neuroblastoma
Lymphoma
Prostate cancer

Causes

Differentiating Brain Tumor from other Diseases

For patient information click here

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Assosciate editor(s)-In-Chief Fahimeh Shojaei, M.D., Prashanth Saddala, Sujit Routray, M.D. [2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Brain tumour; brain cancer; intracranial tumor; astrocytoma; glioblastoma; oligodendrocytoma; meningioma; ependymoma; craniopharyngioma.

Overview

Classification

Brain tumors can be classified as follows:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brain tumors
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adult primary brain tumor
 
 
 
Childhood primary brain tumor
 
 
 
Brain metastase
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

•Glioblastoma multiforme
•Oligodendroglioma
•Meningioma
•Hemangioblastoma
•Pituitary adenoma
•Schwannoma
•Primary CNS lymphoma
 
 
 

•Pilocytic astrocytoma
•Medulloblastoma
•Ependymoma
•Craniopharyngioma
•Pinealoma
 
 
 
 

•Lung cancer
•Breast cancer
•Melanoma
•Gastrointestinal tract cancer
•Renal cell carcinoma
•Osteosarcoma
•Head and neck cancer
•Neuroblastoma
•Lymphoma
•Prostate cancer
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Causes

The exact cause of brain tumor is not known.

Differentiating Brain Tumor from other Diseases

On the basis of seizure, visual disturbance, and constitutional symptoms, brain tumors must be differentiated from AV malformation, brain aneurysm, bacterial brain abscess, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, hydatid cyst, CNS cryptococcosis, CNS aspergillosis, and brain metastasis.

Diseases Clinical manifestations Para-clinical findings Gold
standard
Additional findings
Symptoms Physical examination
Lab Findings MRI Immunohistopathology
Head-
ache
Seizure Visual disturbance Constitutional Focal neurological deficit
Adult primary brain tumors
Glioblastoma multiforme
[1][2][3]
+ +/− +/− +
  • Pseudopalisading appearance
Oligodendroglioma
[4][5][6]
+ + +/− +
  • Chicken wire capillary pattern
  • Fried egg cell appearance
Meningioma
[7][8][9]
+ +/− +/− +
  • Well circumscribed
  • Extra-axial mass
  • Whorled spindle cell pattern
  • May be associated with NF-2
Hemangioblastoma
[10][11][12][13]
+ +/− +/− +
Pituitary adenoma
[14][15][3]
+ Bitemporal hemianopia
  • It is associated with MEN1 disease.
Schwannoma
[16][17][18][19]
+
  • Split-fat sign
  • Fascicular sign
  • Often have areas of hemosiderin
  • S100+
Primary CNS lymphoma
[20][21]
+ +/− +/− +
  • Single mass with ring enhancement
Childhood primary brain tumors
Pilocytic astrocytoma
[22][23][24]
+ +/− +/− +
Medulloblastoma
[25][26][27]
+ +/− +/− +
  • Homer wright rosettes
Ependymoma
[28][3]
+ +/− +/− +
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Causes an unusually persistent, continuous headache in children.
Craniopharyngioma
[29][30][31][3]
+ +/− + Bitemporal hemianopia +
Pinealoma
[32][33][34]
+ +/− +/− + vertical gaze palsy
  • May cause prinaud syndrome (vertical gaze palsy, pupillary light-near dissociation, lid retraction and convergence-retraction nystagmus
Vascular
AV malformation
[35][36][3]
+ + +/− +/−
Brain aneurysm
[37][38][39][40][41]
+ +/− +/− +/−
  • MRA and CTA
Infectious
Bacterial brain abscess
[42][43]
+ +/− +/− + +
  • Central hypodense signal and surrounding ring-enhancement in T1
  • Central hyperintense area surrounded by a well-defined hypointense capsule with surrounding edema in T2
  • History/ imaging
Tuberculosis
[44][3][45]
+ +/− +/− + +
  • Lab data/ Imaging
Toxoplasmosis
[46][47]
+ +/− +/− +
  • History/ imaging
Hydatid cyst
[48][3]
+ +/− +/− +/− +
  • Imaging
CNS cryptococcosis
[49]
+ +/− +/− + +
  • We may see numerous acutely branching septate hyphae
  • Lab data/ Imaging
CNS aspergillosis
[50]
+ +/− +/− + +
  • Multiple abscesses
  • Ring enhancement
  • Peripheral low signal intensity on T2
  • We may see numerous acutely branching septate hyphae
  • Lab data/ Imaging
Other
Brain metastasis
[51][3]
+ +/− +/− + +
  • Based on the primary cancer type we may have different immunohistopathology findings.
  • History/ imaging

ABBREVIATIONS

CNS=Central nervous system, AV=Arteriovenous, CSF=Cerebrospinal fluid, NF-2=Neurofibromatosis type 2, MEN-1=Multiple endocrine neoplasia, GFAP=Glial fibrillary acidic protein, HIV=Human immunodeficiency virus, BhCG=Human chorionic gonadotropin, ESR=Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, AFB=Acid fast bacilli, MRA=Magnetic resonance angiography, CTA=CT angiography

  1. Sathornsumetee S, Rich JN, Reardon DA (November 2007). "Diagnosis and treatment of high-grade astrocytoma". Neurol Clin. 25 (4): 1111–39, x. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2007.07.004. PMID 17964028.
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  13. Perks WH, Cross JN, Sivapragasam S, Johnson P (March 1976). "Supratentorial haemangioblastoma with polycythaemia". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 39 (3): 218–20. PMID 945331.
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  22. Sathornsumetee S, Rich JN, Reardon DA (November 2007). "Diagnosis and treatment of high-grade astrocytoma". Neurol Clin. 25 (4): 1111–39, x. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2007.07.004. PMID 17964028.
  23. Pedersen CL, Romner B (January 2013). "Current treatment of low grade astrocytoma: a review". Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 115 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.07.002. PMID 22819718.
  24. Mattle, Heinrich (2017). Fundamentals of neurology : an illustrated guide. Stuttgart New York: Thieme. ISBN 9783131364524.
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