|IUPAC name|| Tetrafluoromethane|
|Other names||Perfluoromethane, Tetrafluorocarbon, Freon 14, Halon 14, Arcton 0, CFC 14, PFC 14, R 14, UN 1982|
|Molar mass||88.00 g/mol|
|Appearance||Colorless odorless gas|
|Density||3.72 g/l, gas (15 °C)|
-183.6 °C (89.6 K)
-127.8 °C (145.4 K)
|Solubility in water|| 0.005 %V at 20 °C
0.0038 %V at 25 °C
|Vapor pressure|| 3.65 MPa at 15 °C
106.5 kPa at -127 °C
|Flash point||Non flammable|
|> 1100 °C|
| Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references
Additional physical properties
|Density (ρ) at -196 °C (solid)||1.943 g.cm-3|
|Density (ρ) at -183 °C||1.89 g.cm-3|
|Density (ρ) at -127.8 °C (liquid)||1.603 g.cm-3|
|Density (ρ) at -80 °C (gas)||1.317 kg.m-3|
|Density (ρ) at 15 °C (gas)||3.72 kg.m-3|
|Density (ρ) at 21 °C (gas)||3.858 kg.m-3|
|Triple point temperature (Tt)||-183.7 °C (89.4 K)|
|Critical temperature (Tc)||-45.5 °C (227.6 K)|
|Critical pressure (pc)||3.793 MPa (37.43 bar)|
|Critical volume (Vc)||0.142 dm3.mol-1|
|Critical compressibility (Zc)||2.77|
|Latent heat of fusion (lf) at triple point||8.09 kJ.kg-1|
|Latent heat of vaporization (lv) at -127.8 °C||135.7 kJ.kg-1|
|Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (cp) at 30 °C||58 J.mol-1.K-1|
|Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (cp) at -145 °C||80.08 J.mol-1.K-1|
|Specific heat capacity at constant volume (cv) at 30 °C||49 J.mol-1.K-1|
|Heat capacity ratio (κ) at 30 °C||1.178571|
|Compressibility Factor (Z) at 15 °C||0.9981|
|Acentric factor (ω)||0.177|
|Dipole moment||0 D|
|Viscosity (η) at 0 °C||16.1 μPa.s (0.0161 cP)|
|Viscosity (η) at -60.3 °C||17.0 μPa.s (0.0170 cP)|
|Surface tension (σ) at -80 °C||6.4 mN.m-1|
|Thermal conductivity (λ) at 0 °C||15.03 mW.m-1.K-1|
Pure tetrafluoromethane was prepared the first time in 1926.
Tetrafluoromethane can be prepared in laboratory by reaction:
- SiC + 2 F2 → CF4 + Si
or by fluorination of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or phosgene with sulfur tetrafluoride. Commercially it is manufactured by aggressive reaction of fluorine with dichlorodifluoromethane or chlorotrifluoromethane. Another way is electrolysis of fluorides MF, MF2 with carbon electrode.
Tetrafluoromethane, as other fluorinated hydrocarbons, is very stable due to strength of C-F bonds with bonding energy of 515 kJ.mol-1 (see Environmental effects). Therefore it is inert to acids and hydroxides influence, however, it reacts explosively with alkali metals. Thermal decomposition produces very toxic gases (carbonyl fluoride, carbon monoxide and in presence of water also corrosive hydrogen fluoride.
Tetrafluoromethane is sometimes used as a low temperature refrigerant. It is used in circuit board manufacture, manufacture of insulating materials and semiconductors. It is used as a gas etchant and dry/plasma etching.
Tetrafluoromethane is a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect. It is very stable and lasts a long time in the atmosphere and is a very powerful greenhouse gas. Its atmospheric lifetime is 50,000 years and global warming factor is 6500 (carbon dioxide has a factor of 1). Although structurally similar to Chlorofluorocarbons, tetrafluoromethane does not deplete the ozone layer.
Inhalation of tetrafluoromethane can cause, according to concentration, headache, nausea, dizziness and damage of cardiovascular system (mainly heart). Long-terming exposure can cause heavy heart damage.
Because of its heavier density, it can fill up ground area and in non-ventilated places can cause asphyxiation.
- ↑ F. Brezina, J. Mollin, R. Pastorek, Z. Sindelar. Chemicke tabulky anorganickych sloucenin (Chemical tables of inorganic compounds). SNTL, 1986.
- ↑ N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw. Chemie prvku (Chemistry of the Elements). Informatorium, Prague, 1993.
- Carbon tetrachloride (Tetrachloromethane)
- Carbon tetraiodide (Tetraiodomethane)
- International Chemical Safety Card 0575
- National Pollutant Inventory - Flouride and compounds fact sheet
- Data from Air Liquide
- Vapor pressure graph at Air Liquide
- MSDS at Oxford University
- Protocol for measurement of tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane from primary aluminium production
- Chemical and physical properties tablede:Tetrafluormethan
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