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Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TREM1 gene.[1][2][3]


Monocyte/macrophage- and neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses can be stimulated through a variety of receptors, including G protein-linked 7-transmembrane receptors (e.g., FPR1), Fc receptors (see MIM 146790), CD14 and Toll-like receptors (e.g., TLR4), and cytokine receptors (e.g., IFNGR1; MIM 107470). Engagement of these receptors can also prime myeloid cells to respond to other stimuli. Myeloid cells express receptors belonging to the Ig superfamily, such as TREM1, or to the C-type lectin superfamily. Depending on their transmembrane and cytoplasmic sequence structure, these receptors have either activating (e.g., KIR2DS1; MIM 604952) or inhibitory functions (e.g., KIR2DL1).[3] In granulocyte cells, TREM1 is activated by C/EBPε independently from inflammatory response.[4]

Model organisms

Model organisms have been used in the study of TREM1 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Trem1tm1(KOMP)Vlcg was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[5] Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen[6] to determine the effects of deletion.[7][8][9][10] Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping[11]


  1. Gingras MC, Lapillonne H, Margolin JF (March 2002). "TREM-1, MDL-1, and DAP12 expression is associated with a mature stage of myeloid development". Molecular Immunology. 38 (11): 817–24. doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(02)00004-4. PMID 11922939.
  2. Bouchon A, Dietrich J, Colonna M (May 2000). "Cutting edge: inflammatory responses can be triggered by TREM-1, a novel receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes". Journal of Immunology. 164 (10): 4991–5. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.10.4991. PMID 10799849.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: TREM1 triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1".
  4. Suh HC, Benoukraf T, Shyamsunder P, Yin T, Cao Q, Said J, Lee S, Lim R, Yang H, Salotti J, Johnson PF, Madan V, Koeffler HP (April 2017). "LPS independent activation of the pro-inflammatory receptor Trem1 by C/EBPε in granulocytes". Scientific Reports. 7: 46440. doi:10.1038/srep46440. PMC 5404328. PMID 28440307.
  5. Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium".
  7. Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (June 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410. PMID 21677750.
  8. Dolgin E (June 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.
  9. Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247.
  10. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, et al. (July 2013). "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452–64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium".

Further reading

  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1–2): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298.
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A, Sugano S (October 1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene. 200 (1–2): 149–56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149.
  • Bouchon A, Facchetti F, Weigand MA, Colonna M (April 2001). "TREM-1 amplifies inflammation and is a crucial mediator of septic shock". Nature. 410 (6832): 1103–7. doi:10.1038/35074114. PMID 11323674.
  • Allcock RJ, Barrow AD, Forbes S, Beck S, Trowsdale J (February 2003). "The human TREM gene cluster at 6p21.1 encodes both activating and inhibitory single IgV domain receptors and includes NKp44". European Journal of Immunology. 33 (2): 567–77. doi:10.1002/immu.200310033. PMID 12645956.
  • Bleharski JR, Kiessler V, Buonsanti C, Sieling PA, Stenger S, Colonna M, Modlin RL (April 2003). "A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response". Journal of Immunology. 170 (7): 3812–8. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.170.7.3812. PMID 12646648.
  • Colonna M, Facchetti F (June 2003). "TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells): a new player in acute inflammatory responses". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 187 Suppl 2: S397–401. doi:10.1086/374754. PMID 12792857.
  • Radaev S, Kattah M, Rostro B, Colonna M, Sun PD (December 2003). "Crystal structure of the human myeloid cell activating receptor TREM-1". Structure. 11 (12): 1527–35. doi:10.1016/j.str.2003.11.001. PMID 14656437.
  • Radsak MP, Salih HR, Rammensee HG, Schild H (April 2004). "Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in neutrophil inflammatory responses: differential regulation of activation and survival". Journal of Immunology. 172 (8): 4956–63. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.172.8.4956. PMID 15067076.
  • Wang DY, Qin RY, Liu ZR, Gupta MK, Chang Q (September 2004). "Expression of TREM-1 mRNA in acute pancreatitis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 10 (18): 2744–6. doi:10.3748/wjg.v10.i18.2744. PMID 15309732.
  • Kelker MS, Foss TR, Peti W, Teyton L, Kelly JW, Wüthrich K, Wilson IA (September 2004). "Crystal structure of human triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) at 1.47 A". Journal of Molecular Biology. 342 (4): 1237–48. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.07.089. PMID 15351648.
  • Knapp S, Gibot S, de Vos A, Versteeg HH, Colonna M, van der Poll T (December 2004). "Cutting edge: expression patterns of surface and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in human endotoxemia". Journal of Immunology. 173 (12): 7131–4. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.173.12.7131. PMID 15585833.
  • González-Roldán N, Ferat-Osorio E, Aduna-Vicente R, Wong-Baeza I, Esquivel-Callejas N, Astudillo-de la Vega H, Sánchez-Fernández P, Arriaga-Pizano L, Villasís-Keever MA, López-Macías C, Isibasi A (December 2005). "Expression of triggering receptor on myeloid cell 1 and histocompatibility complex molecules in sepsis and major abdominal surgery". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 11 (47): 7473–9. doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i47.7473. PMID 16437719.
  • Tzivras M, Koussoulas V, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Tzivras D, Tsaganos T, Koutoukas P, Giamarellou H, Archimandritis A (June 2006). "Role of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells in inflammatory bowel disease". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (21): 3416–9. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i21.3416. PMID 16733861.
  • Plachouras D, Routsi C, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Spyridaki E, Andrianakis I, Metzelopoulos S, Tsaganos T, Floros I, Douzinas EE, Armaganidis A, Roussos C, Giamarellou H (2006). "Monocytes as a site of production of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in the septic host". Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 38 (10): 909–15. doi:10.1080/00365540600786523. PMID 17008237.
  • Murakami Y, Kohsaka H, Kitasato H, Akahoshi T (January 2007). "Lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 expression on macrophages is regulated by endogenous prostaglandin E2". Journal of Immunology. 178 (2): 1144–50. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.178.2.1144. PMID 17202378.