Subarachnoid hemorrhage risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [3]

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage include smoking, hypertension (high blood pressure) and excessive alcohol intake; all are associated with a doubled risk for SAH. Some protection of uncertain significance is conferred by Caucasian ethnicity, hormone replacement therapy, and a higher than normal cholesterol.[1][2]

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage include: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Hereditary

Other risk factors

Trigger factors

Common trigger events in the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage include:[11][12][13]

The highest incidence of rupture occurred while patients were engaged in their daily routines, in the absence of strenuous physical activity.[14]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Lawes CM; et al. (2005). "Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systematic review of epidemiological studies". Stroke. 36 (12): 2773–80. PMID 16282541. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000190838.02954.e8. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Lawes CM, Algra A, Bennett DA, van Gijn J; et al. (2005). "Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systematic review of epidemiological studies.". Stroke. 36 (12): 2773–80. PMID 16282541. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000190838.02954.e8. 
  3. Kernan WN, Viscoli CM, Brass LM, Broderick JP, Brott T, Feldmann E; et al. (2000). "c and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.". N Engl J Med. 343 (25): 1826–32. PMID 11117973. doi:10.1056/NEJM200012213432501. 
  4. Levine SR, Brust JC, Futrell N, Brass LM, Blake D, Fayad P; et al. (1991). "A comparative study of the cerebrovascular complications of cocaine: alkaloidal versus hydrochloride--a review.". Neurology. 41 (8): 1173–7. PMID 1866000. 
  5. Scotti G, Filizzolo F, Scialfa G, Tampieri D, Versari P (1987). "Repeated subarachnoid hemorrhages from a cervical meningioma. Case report.". J Neurosurg. 66 (5): 779–81. PMID 3572505. doi:10.3171/jns.1987.66.5.0779. 
  6. Navi BB, Reichman JS, Berlin D, Reiner AS, Panageas KS, Segal AZ; et al. (2010). "Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with cancer.". Neurology. 74 (6): 494–501. PMC 2830918Freely accessible. PMID 20142616. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181cef837. 
  7. Risselada R, Straatman H, van Kooten F, Dippel DW, van der Lugt A, Niessen WJ; et al. (2009). "Withdrawal of statins and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage.". Stroke. 40 (8): 2887–92. PMID 19520985. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.552760. 
  8. Leppälä JM, Paunio M, Virtamo J, Fogelholm R, Albanes D, Taylor PR; et al. (1999). "Alcohol consumption and stroke incidence in male smokers.". Circulation. 100 (11): 1209–14. PMID 10484542. 
  9. Bederson JB, Awad IA, Wiebers DO, Piepgras D, Haley EC, Brott T; et al. (2000). "Recommendations for the management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association.". Circulation. 102 (18): 2300–8. PMID 11056108. 
  10. Vlak MH, Rinkel GJ, Greebe P, Greving JP, Algra A (2013). "Lifetime risks for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: multivariable risk stratification.". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 84 (6): 619–23. PMID 23355806. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-303783. 
  11. Anderson C, Ni Mhurchu C, Scott D, Bennett D, Jamrozik K, Hankey G; et al. (2003). "Triggers of subarachnoid hemorrhage: role of physical exertion, smoking, and alcohol in the Australasian Cooperative Research on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Study (ACROSS).". Stroke. 34 (7): 1771–6. PMID 12775890. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000077015.90334.A7. 
  12. Penrose RJ (1972). "Life events before subarachnoid haemorrhage.". J Psychosom Res. 16 (5): 329–33. PMID 5071430. 
  13. Vlak MH, Rinkel GJ, Greebe P, van der Bom JG, Algra A (2011). "Trigger factors and their attributable risk for rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a case-crossover study.". Stroke. 42 (7): 1878–82. PMID 21546472. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.606558. 
  14. Matsuda M, Watanabe K, Saito A, Matsumura K, Ichikawa M. Circum- stances, activities, and events precipitating aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;16:25–29.

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