Subarachnoid hemorrhage history and symptoms

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AHA/ASA Guidelines for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (2012)

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [2]; Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [3]

Overview

The classic symptom of subarachnoid hemorrhage is thunderclap headache ("most severe ever" headache developing over seconds to minutes). This headache is often described like being "kicked in the head".[1] 10% of all people with this symptom turn out to have a subarachnoid hemorrhage, and is the only symptom in about a third of all SAH patients. Other presenting features may be vomiting (non-specific), seizures (1 in 14) and meningism. Confusion, decreased level of consciousness or coma may be present. Intraocular hemorrhage (bleeding into the eyeball) may occur. Subhyaloid hemorrhages may be visible on fundoscopy (the hyaloid membrane envelopes the vitreous body).

History and symptoms

History

It is critical to obtain a detailed and focused history.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

History Comments
Timing of the symptoms onset
  • The time the patient was last normal
Initial symptoms
  • The progression of symptoms
Vascular risk factors
Medications
Recent trauma
    • History of recent fall or accident
Dementia
Alcohol or illicit drug use
  • Cocaine
  • Other sympathomimetic drugs
Cancer
  • History of brain or cervical tumors

Symtoms

It is impossible to know whether symptoms are due to ischemia, hemorrhage, or other medical reason based on clinical characteristics alone. The abrupt onset of focal neurologic symptoms is presumed to be vascular in origin.

Non specific symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke may include the following:[8][9][11][10]

References

  1. Longmore, Murray (2007). Oxford Handbook of Clinicial Medicine. Oxford. p. 841. ISBN 0-19-856837-1.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. Huhtakangas J, Tetri S, Juvela S, Saloheimo P, Bode MK, Hillbom M. Effect of increased warfarin use on warfarin-related cerebral hemor- rhage: a longitudinal population-based study. Stroke. 2011;42:2431– 2435. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.615260.
  3. Rådberg JA, Olsson JE, Rådberg CT. Prognostic parameters in sponta- neous intracerebral hematomas with special reference to anticoagulant treatment. Stroke. 1991;22:571–576. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.22.5.571.
  4. Flaherty ML, Kissela B, Woo D, Kleindorfer D, Alwell K, Sekar P, Moomaw CJ, Haverbusch M, Broderick JP. The increasing incidence of anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2007;68:116–121. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000250340.05202.8b.
  5. Ariesen MJ, Claus SP, Rinkel GJ, Algra A (2003). "Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in the general population: a systematic review.". Stroke. 34 (8): 2060–5. PMID 12843354. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000080678.09344.8D. 
  6. Bos MJ, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Breteler MM (2007). "Decreased glomerular filtration rate is a risk factor for hemorrhagic but not for ischemic stroke: the Rotterdam Study.". Stroke. 38 (12): 3127–32. PMID 17962600. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.489807. 
  7. Hackam DG, Mrkobrada M (2012). "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and brain hemorrhage: a meta-analysis.". Neurology. 79 (18): 1862–5. PMID 23077009. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318271f848.  Review in: Evid Based Ment Health. 2013 May;16(2):54
  8. 8.0 8.1 Fisher CM (1971). "Pathological observations in hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage.". J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 30 (3): 536–50. PMID 4105427. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Gorelick PB, Hier DB, Caplan LR, Langenberg P (1986). "Headache in acute cerebrovascular disease.". Neurology. 36 (11): 1445–50. PMID 3762963. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Fontanarosa PB (1989). "Recognition of subarachnoid hemorrhage.". Ann Emerg Med. 18 (11): 1199–205. PMID 2683901. 
  11. Qureshi AI, Tuhrim S, Broderick JP, Batjer HH, Hondo H, Hanley DF (2001). "Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.". N Engl J Med. 344 (19): 1450–60. PMID 11346811. doi:10.1056/NEJM200105103441907. 

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