Subarachnoid hemorrhage epidemiology and demographics

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AHA/ASA Guidelines for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (2012)

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [2]

Overview

The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage was estimated 10.5 per 100 000 person annually.[1] Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs at a relatively young age. the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) increases with age and commonly affects adults 􏰁≥50 years of age.[2] females are slightly more affected with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage|subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) than men (1.24 times higher than in men).[2][3]

Epidemiology and demographics

Incidence

  • The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage was estimated 10.5 per 100 000 person annually.[1]

Age

  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs at a relatively young age
  • The incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) increases with age and commonly affects adults 􏰁≥50 years of age.[2]
  • The mean age of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid hemorrhage|subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-NASAH) occurrence was reported between 50 and 55 years.[4]

Gender

  • Women are slightly more affected with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage|subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) than men (1.24 times higher than in men).[2][5]
  • Unlike aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the incidence of perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-NASAH) does not vary by gender.[4]

Race

  • The incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH is higher in Blacks and Hispanics compere to white Americans.[6]

Geographic region

  • In the United States, the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is 10 to 15 cases per 100,000 population.[7]
  • In China, the incidence of aneurysmal aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is 2 cases per 100,000 population.[8]
  • In South and Central America, the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is 4 cases per 100,000 population.[9]
  • In Finland and Japan, the incidence of aneurysmal aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is 19 to 23 cases per 100,000 population. [10]

Case fatality rate

  • An average case fatality rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was estimated to be 50,000 cases per 100,000 individuals.[11][12]
    • 10,000 cases per 100,000 individuals die prior reaching the hospital
    • 25,000 cases per 100,000 individuals die within 24 hours of SAH
    • 45,000 cases per 100,000 individuals die within 30 days of SAH

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 van Gijn J, Rinkel GJ (2001). "Subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnosis, causes and management.". Brain. 124 (Pt 2): 249–78. PMID 11157554. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Rinkel GJ, Djibuti M, Algra A, van Gijn J (1998). "Prevalence and risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a systematic review.". Stroke. 29 (1): 251–6. PMID 9445359. 
  3. de Rooij NK, Linn FH, van der Plas JA, Algra A, Rinkel GJ. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:1365–1372.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Flaherty ML, Haverbusch M, Kissela B, Kleindorfer D, Schneider A, Sekar P; et al. (2005). "Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: incidence, risk factors, and outcome.". J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 14 (6): 267–71. PMC 1388255Freely accessible. PMID 16518463. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2005.07.004. 
  5. de Rooij NK, Linn FH, van der Plas JA, Algra A, Rinkel GJ. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:1365–1372.
  6. Broderick JP, Brott T, Tomsick T, Huster G, Miller R (1992). "The risk of subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages in blacks as compared with whites.". N Engl J Med. 326 (11): 733–6. PMID 1738378. doi:10.1056/NEJM199203123261103. 
  7. Shea AM, Reed SD, Curtis LH, Alexander MJ, Villani JJ, Schulman KA (2007). "Characteristics of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States in 2003.". Neurosurgery. 61 (6): 1131–7; discussion 1137–8. PMID 18162891. doi:10.1227/01.neu.0000306090.30517.ae. 
  8. Ingall T, Asplund K, Mahonen M, Bonita R. A multinational com- parison of subarachnoid hemorrhage epidemiology in the WHO MONICA stroke study. Stroke. 2000;31:1054 –1061.
  9. de Rooij NK, Linn FH, van der Plas JA, Algra A, Rinkel GJ (2007). "Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends.". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 78 (12): 1365–72. PMC 2095631Freely accessible. PMID 17470467. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.117655. 
  10. Ingall T, Asplund K, Mähönen M, Bonita R (2000). "A multinational comparison of subarachnoid hemorrhage epidemiology in the WHO MONICA stroke study.". Stroke. 31 (5): 1054–61. PMID 10797165. 
  11. Hop JW, Rinkel GJ, Algra A, van Gijn J (1997). "Case-fatality rates and functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review.". Stroke. 28 (3): 660–4. PMID 9056628. 
  12. Broderick JP, Brott TG, Duldner JE, Tomsick T, Leach A (1994). "Initial and recurrent bleeding are the major causes of death following subarachnoid hemorrhage.". Stroke. 25 (7): 1342–7. PMID 8023347. 

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