# Specific gravity

Specific Gravity (SG) is a special case of relative density defined as the ratio of the density of a given substance, to the density of water (H_{2}O). Substances with a specific gravity greater than 1 are heavier than water, and those with a specific gravity of less than 1 are lighter than water.

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \mbox{SG} = \frac{\rho_\mathrm{substance}}{\rho_{\mathrm{H}_2\mathrm{O}}}**

The density of the denominator, or reference, is **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://api.formulasearchengine.com/v1/":): \rho_\mathrm{H2O}**
= 1000kgm^{-3} (at 4°C/39.2°F) in SI units.

SG is by definition dimensionless and therefore not dependent on the system of units used (e.g. slugsft^{-3} or kgm^{-3}), in so far as the units are consistent.
Based on the SG-value of a given substance, the density of that substance can be calculated.

## See also

## Books

*Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics*Wiley, B.R. Munson, D.F. Young & T.H. Okishi*Introduction to Fluid Mechanics*Fourth Edition, Wiley, SI Version, R.W. Fox & A.T. McDonald*Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach*Second Edition, McGraw-Hill, International Edition, Y.A. Cengel & M.A. Boles