Sodium periodate can refer to two different chemical compounds which are essentially sodium salts of the two varieties of periodate ion. Sodium metaperiodate (often abbreviated as m-periodate) has the formula NaIO4. Sodium orthoperiodate (often abbreviated as o-periodate) has the formula Na5IO6. Both salts are useful in certain synthetic chemistries for the oxidative power of the periodate ion.
Density is 3,865 kg m-3. It is soluble in water. When heated, it decomposes to form sodium iodate, NaIO3 and oxygen. This decomposition reaction is catalyzed by the presence of manganese(IV) oxide.
Note that the pronunciation is per-iodate, not period-ate.
Sodium periodate can be used in solution to open saccharide rings between vicinal diols leaving two aldehyde groups. This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin. Because the process requires vicinal diols, periodate oxidation is often used to selectively label RNA (ribose has vicinal diols) instead of DNA deoxyribose does not have vicinal diols.
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