Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing
The Roper, Logan and Tierney model of nursing (originally published in 1980, and subsequently revised in 1985, 1990 and the latest edition in 1998) is a model of nursing care based upon activities of living. It is extremely prevalent in the United Kingdom, particularly in the public sector . The model is named after the authors - Roper, Logan and Tierney.
First developed in 1980, this model is based upon work by Nancy Roper in 1976. It is the most widely used nursing model in the United Kingdom and is particularly well used by nurses in medical and surgical settings. The model is based loosely upon the activities of living (ALs) that are evolved from the work of Virginia Henderson in 1966. Whereas Henderson identified 14 activities that "people engage in, in order to live", Roper et al only use 12.
Activities of living
The current model seeks to define 'what living means' (p15) and it breaks it down into the following categories:
- Maintaining a safe environment
- Eating and drinking
- Washing and dressing
- Working and playing
- Expressing sexuality
- Death and dying
These should be considered within the dependence-independence continuum.
Factors influencing activities of living
The following factors that affect ALs are identified 
The life span continuum
The model also incorporates a life span continuum, where the individual passes from fully dependent at birth, to fully independent in the midlife, and returns to fully dependent in their old age/after death.
Within short-stay settings such as surgery it is common for the activities 'sexuality' and 'death' to be combined into one named 'other' and for the addition of an activity 'pain'. Such modifications are common and depend upon institution.
- Roper N., Logan W.W. & Tierney A.J. (1980). The Elements of Nursing. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-01577-5.
- Roper N., Logan W.W. & Tierney A.J. (2000). The Roper-Logan-Tierney Model of Nursing: Based on Activities of Living. Edinburgh: Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 0443063737.
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