Podocyte

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Podocyte
PhysiologieGlomérulaire.png
Glomerulus. (Diagram in French, but "Membrane basale glomerulaire et ses podocytes" labeled near center.)
Dorlands/Elsevier p_26/12652756

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Please Take Over This Page and Apply to be Editor-In-Chief for this topic: There can be one or more than one Editor-In-Chief. You may also apply to be an Associate Editor-In-Chief of one of the subtopics below. Please mail us [2] to indicate your interest in serving either as an Editor-In-Chief of the entire topic or as an Associate Editor-In-Chief for a subtopic. Please be sure to attach your CV and or biographical sketch.

Podocytes (or visceral epithelial cells[1]) are cells of the visceral epithelium in the kidneys and form a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier, contributing size selectivity and maintaining a massive filtration surface.

Function

Adjacent podocytes interdigitate to cover the basal lamina which is intimately associated with the glomerular capillaries, but the podocytes leave gaps or thin filtration slits.

The slits are covered by slit diaphragms which are composed of a number of cell-surface proteins including nephrin, podocalyxin, and P-cadherin, which ensure that large macromolecules such as serum albumin and gamma globulin remain in the bloodstream.

Small molecules such as water, glucose, and ionic salts are able to pass through the slit diaphragms and form an ultrafiltrate[2] which is further processed by the nephron to produce urine.

Podocytes are also involved in regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). When podocytes contract, they cause closure of filtration slits. This decreases the surface area available for filtration to occur. Thus, decreasing the GFR.

Structure features

Structural features of podocytes indicate a high rate of vesicular traffic in these cells. Many coated vesicles and coated pits can be seen along the basolateral domain of the podocytes.

In their cell bodies, podocytes possess a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi apparatus, indicative of a high capacity for protein synthesis and post-translational modifications.

There is also growing evidence of a large number of multivesicular bodies and other lysosomal components seen in these cells, indicating a high endocytic activity.

"Pedicels" (or "foot processes") extend from the podocyte and increase the surface area.[3]

Pathology

Disruption of the slit diaphragms or destruction of the podocytes can lead to massive proteinuria where large amounts of protein are lost from the blood.

An example of this occurs in the congenital disorder Finnish-type nephrosis, which is characterised by neonatal proteinuria leading to end-stage renal failure. This disease has been found to be caused by a mutation in the nephrin gene.

See also

References

  1. p_26/12652756 at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. Podocyte at eMedicine Dictionary
  3. Physiology at MCG 7/7ch04/7ch04p08

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| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Podocyte | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Podocyte at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on PodocyteClinical Trials on Podocyte at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Podocyte | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on PodocyteNICE Guidance on PodocyteNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on PodocyteCDC on Podocyte


| group7 = Textbook Information on Podocyte | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Podocyte


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Podocyte | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of PodocyteAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with PodocyteAND (side effects)}} Side effects of PodocyteAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to PodocyteAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on PodocyteAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on PodocyteAND (pregnancy)}} Podocyte in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Podocyte


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Podocyte | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of PodocyteAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of PodocyteAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Podocyte


| group10 = Newstories on Podocyte | list10 = Podocyte in the newsBe alerted to news on PodocyteNews trends on Podocyte</small>


| group11 = Commentary on Podocyte | list11 = Blogs on Podocyte

| group12 = Patient Resources on Podocyte | list12 = Patient resources on PodocyteDiscussion groups on PodocytePatient Handouts on PodocyteDirections to Hospitals Treating PodocyteRisk calculators and risk factors for Podocyte


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Podocyte | list13 = Symptoms of PodocyteCauses & Risk Factors for PodocyteDiagnostic studies for PodocyteTreatment of Podocyte

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Podocyte | list14 = CME Programs on Podocyte

| group15 = International Resources on Podocyte | list15 = Podocyte en EspanolPodocyte en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Podocyte | list16 = Podocyte in the MarketplacePatents on Podocyte

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Podocyte | list17 = List of terms related to Podocyte


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