|Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica(also known as turkish saddle)of the sphenoid bone.|
|Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic.|
|Latin||hypophysis, glandula pituitaria|
|Gray's||subject #275 1275|
|Artery||superior hypophyseal artery, infundibular artery, prechiasmal artery, inferior hypophyseal artery, capsular artery, artery of the inferior cavernous sinus|
|Precursor||neural and oral ectoderm, including Rathke's pouch|
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The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae) at the base of the brain. The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain.
The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating homeostasis, including trophic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence.
The hypophysis is also the top cell of the suspensor in a dicot embryo, which will differentiate to form part of the root cap.
Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus. It is composed of two lobes: the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis, also referred to as the anterior pituitary is divided into anatomical regions known as the pars tuberalis and pars distalis. The neurohypophysis, also referred to as the posterior pituitary. The pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk, whereby hypothalamic releasing factors are released and in turn stimulate the release of pituitary hormones.
Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
The anterior lobe is derived from the oral ectoderm and is composed of glandular epithelium. The anterior pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus via the hypophysial-portal vascular connection in the pituitary stalk. Through this vascular connection the hypothalamus integrates stimulatory and inhibitory central and peripheral signals to the five phenotypically distinct pituitary cell types.
The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes important endocrine hormones, such as ACTH, TSH, prolactin, growth hormone, endorphins, FSH, and LH. These hormones are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of hypothalamic hormones. The hypothalamic hormones travel to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system.
Posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
The posterior lobe is connected to the hypothalamus via the infundibulum or pituitary stalk, giving rise to the tuberoinfundibular pathway. Hormones are made in nerve cell bodies positioned in the hypothalamus, and these hormones are then transported down the nerve cell's axons to the posterior pituitary.
The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are
- Oxytocin, where the majority is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the Hypothalamus
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin and AVP, arginine vasopressin), the majority of which is released from the supraoptic nucleus in the Hypothalamus
Oxytocin is the only pituitary hormone to create a positive feedback loop. For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which in turn increases uterine contractions. This positive feedback loop continues until the baby is born.
There is also a intermediate lobe in many animals. For instance in fish it is believed to control physiological colour change. In adult humans it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary. The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed to the anterior pituitary.
The pituitary hormones help control some of the following body processes:
- Blood pressure
- Some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth including stimulation of uterine contractions during childbirth
- Breast milk production
- Sex organ functions in both women and men
- Thyroid gland function
- The conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
- Water and osmolarity regulation in the body.
Disorders involving the pituitary gland include:
|Growth hormone deficiency||underproduction||growth hormone|
|Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone||overproduction||vasopressin|
|Pituitary adenoma||overproduction||any pituitary hormone|
|Hypopituitarism||underproduction||any pituitary hormone|
- ↑ Gibo H, Hokama M, Kyoshima K, Kobayashi S (1993). "[Arteries to the pituitary]". Nippon Rinsho 51 (10): 2550-4. PMID 8254920.
- NeuroNames hier-382
- Histology at Boston University 14201loa
- The Pituitary Gland, from the UMM Endocrinology Health Guide
- Oklamoma State, Endocrine System
- Pituitary apoplexy mimicking pituitary abscess []
|Epithalamus||Pineal body • Habenula (Habenular nuclei) • Stria medullaris • Habenular trigone|
|Thalamus/nuclei||paired: AN • Ventral (VA/VL, VP/VPM/VPL) • Lateral (Pulvinar) • Metathalamus (MG, LG)
surface: reticulartracts to thalamus: Mammillothalamic tract • Thalamic fasciculus • Lenticular fasciculus • Ansa lenticularis • Medial lemniscus • Trigeminal lemniscus • Spinothalamic tract • Lateral lemniscus
|Hypothalamus||autonomic zones: Anterior (parasympathetic/heat loss) • Posterior (sympathetic/heat conservation)
tracts: Medial forebrain bundlePituitary: (Posterior is diencephalon, but anterior is glandular)
|Subthalamus||Subthalamic nucleus • Zona incerta|
Human anatomy, endocrine system: endocrine glands
|Hypothalamic/pituitary axes||Adrenal axis: Adrenal gland Gonadal axis: Testes - Ovaries - Corpus luteum|
|Other||Pineal gland • Islets of pancreas|
Pituitary and hypothalamic hormones and analogues (H01)
|Anterior pituitary||Adrenocorticotropic hormone (Corticotropin, Tetracosactide) - Thyrotropin - Somatropin/agonists (Somatrem, Mecasermin, Sermorelin) - other (Pegvisomant)|
|Posterior pituitary||Vasopressin (Desmopressin, Lypressin, Terlipressin, Ornipressin, Argipressin) - Oxytocin (Demoxytocin, Carbetocin)|
|Hypothalamic||gonadotropin-releasing hormones (Gonadorelin, Nafarelin, Histrelin) - antigrowth hormone (Somatostatin, Octreotide, Lanreotide) - anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormones (Ganirelix, Cetrorelix)|
WikiDoc Research Resources for Pituitary gland
|Articles on Pituitary gland||Most recent articles on Pituitary gland • Most cited articles on Pituitary gland • Review articles on Pituitary gland • Articles on Pituitary gland in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ|
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|Evidence Based Medicine Regarding Pituitary gland||AND (Cochrane Database Syst Rev[http://worldselectshop.com/?id=9361 Cochrane Collaboration on Pituitary gland • Bandolier on Pituitary gland • TRIP on Pituitary gland|
|Cost Effectiveness of Pituitary gland||AND (Cost effectiveness)|
| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Pituitary gland | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Pituitary gland at Clinical Trials.gov • Trial results on Pituitary gland • Clinical Trials on Pituitary gland at Google
| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Pituitary gland | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Pituitary gland • NICE Guidance on Pituitary gland • NHS PRODIGY Guidance • FDA on Pituitary gland • CDC on Pituitary gland
| group7 = Textbook Information on Pituitary gland | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Pituitary gland
| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Pituitary gland | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Pituitary gland • AND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Pituitary gland • AND (side effects)}} Side effects of Pituitary gland • AND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Pituitary gland • AND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Pituitary gland • AND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Pituitary gland • AND (pregnancy)}} Pituitary gland in pregnancy • AND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Pituitary gland •
| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Pituitary gland | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Pituitary gland • AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Pituitary gland • AND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Pituitary gland
| group11 = Commentary on Pituitary gland | list11 = Blogs on Pituitary gland
| group12 = Patient Resources on Pituitary gland | list12 = Patient resources on Pituitary gland • Discussion groups on Pituitary gland • Patient Handouts on Pituitary gland • Directions to Hospitals Treating Pituitary gland • Risk calculators and risk factors for Pituitary gland
| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Pituitary gland | list13 = Symptoms of Pituitary gland • Causes & Risk Factors for Pituitary gland • Diagnostic studies for Pituitary gland • Treatment of Pituitary gland
| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Pituitary gland | list14 = CME Programs on Pituitary gland
| group17 = Informatics Resources on Pituitary gland | list17 = List of terms related to Pituitary gland
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