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Penitrem A is a fungal neurotoxin found on ryegrass. It is produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Claviceps, and Penicillium. It inhibits potassium channels in smooth muscles. The maxi-channels targeted have their highest density in the cerebellar Purkinje cells.
It causes a stagger in horses and cattle.
Stages of toxicity
 Acute penitrem A and roquefortine poisoning in a dog
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