Orthodontics

Jump to: navigation, search
Orthodontics

WikiDoc Resources for

Orthodontics

Articles

Most recent articles on Orthodontics

Most cited articles on Orthodontics

Review articles on Orthodontics

Articles on Orthodontics in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Orthodontics

Images of Orthodontics

Photos of Orthodontics

Podcasts & MP3s on Orthodontics

Videos on Orthodontics

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Orthodontics

Bandolier on Orthodontics

TRIP on Orthodontics

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Orthodontics at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Orthodontics

Clinical Trials on Orthodontics at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Orthodontics

NICE Guidance on Orthodontics

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Orthodontics

CDC on Orthodontics

Books

Books on Orthodontics

News

Orthodontics in the news

Be alerted to news on Orthodontics

News trends on Orthodontics

Commentary

Blogs on Orthodontics

Definitions

Definitions of Orthodontics

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Orthodontics

Discussion groups on Orthodontics

Patient Handouts on Orthodontics

Directions to Hospitals Treating Orthodontics

Risk calculators and risk factors for Orthodontics

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Orthodontics

Causes & Risk Factors for Orthodontics

Diagnostic studies for Orthodontics

Treatment of Orthodontics

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Orthodontics

International

Orthodontics en Espanol

Orthodontics en Francais

Business

Orthodontics in the Marketplace

Patents on Orthodontics

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Orthodontics

Editor in Chief: Berna Zorkun DMD [1]


Overview

Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. The word comes from the Greek words ortho meaning straight and odons meaning tooth.

Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or can deal with the control and modification of facial growth. In the latter case it is better defined as "dentofacial orthopedics".

Orthodontic treatment can be carried out for purely aesthetic reasons—improving the general appearance of patients' teeth and face for cosmetic reasons—but treatment is often prescribed for practical reasons, providing the patient with a functionally improved bite (occlusion).

The father of orthodontics is Dr. E. H. Angle.

Methods

If the main goal of the treatment is the dental displacement, most commonly a fixed multibracket therapy is used. In this case orthodontic wires are inserted into dental braces, which can be made from stainless steel or a more esthetic ceramic material.

Also removable appliances, or "plates", headgear, expansion appliances, and many other devices can be used to move teeth. Functional and orthopaedics appliances are used in growing patients (age 5 to 13) with the aim to modify the jaw dimensions and relationship if these are altered. (See Prognathism.) This therapy is frequently followed by a fixed multibracket therapy to align the teeth and refine the occlusion.

After a course of active orthodontic treatment, patients will often wear retainers, which will maintain the teeth in their improved position while the surrounding bone reforms around them. The retainers are generally worn full-time for a short period, perhaps 6 months to a year, and then worn periodically (typically nightly during sleep) for as long as the orthodontist recommends. It is possible for the teeth to stay aligned without regular retainer wear. However, there are many reasons teeth will crowd as a person ages; thus there is no guarantee that teeth, orthodontically treated or otherwise, will stay aligned without retention. For this reason, many orthodontists recommend periodic retainer wear for many years (or indefinitely) after orthodontic treatment.

Appropriately trained doctors align the teeth with respect to the surrounding soft tissues, with or without movement of the underlying bones, which can be moved either through growth modification in children or jaw surgery (orthognathic surgery) in adults.

Several appliances are utilized for growth modification; including functional appliances, Headgear and Facemasks.

These "orthopedic appliances" may influence the development of an adolescent's profile and give an improved aesthetic and functional result.

Conditions

The most common condition that the methods of orthodontics are used for is correcting anteroposterior discrepancies. Another common situation leading to orthodontic treatment is crowding of the teeth.

Anteroposterior discrepancies

Anteroposterior discrepancies are deviations between the teeth of the upper and lower jaw in the anteroposterior direction. For instance, the top teeth can be too far forward relative to the lower teeth ("increased overjet".) The headgear is attached to the braces via metal hooks or a facebow and is anchored from the back of the head or neck with straps or a head-cap. Elastic bands are typically then used to apply pressure to the bow or hooks. Its purpose is to slow-down or stop the upper jaw from growing, hence preventing or correcting an overjet. For more details and photographs, see Headgear - Orthodontic.

Crowding of teeth

Another common situation leading to orthodontic treatment is crowding of the teeth. In this situation, there is insufficient room for the normal complement of adult teeth, which can sometimes motivate tooth extraction|teeth being extracted in order to make enough room for the remaining teeth.

Diagnosis and treatment planning

In diagnosis and treatment planning, the orthodontist must

  1. recognize the various characteristics of malocclusion and dentofacial deformity;
  2. define the nature of the problem, including the etiology if possible; and
  3. design a treatment strategy based on the specific needs and desires of the individual.
  4. present the treatment strategy to the patient in such a way that the patient fully understands the ramifications of his/her decision. [1]

Image Gallery

Training

Various countries have their own systems for training and registering specialist orthodontists; generally a period of full-time post-graduate study is required for a dentist to qualify as an orthodontist. The orthodontic specialty is the earliest dental specialty.

Europe

In the United Kingdom, this training period lasts three years, after completion of a membership from a Royal College. A further two years is then completed to train to consultant level, after which a fellowship examination from the Royal College is sat. In other parts of Europe, a similar pattern is followed. It is always worth contacting the professional body responsible for registering orthodontists to ensure that the orthodontist you wish to consult is a recognized specialist.

United States

A number of medical and dental schools in the United States offer advanced education in the specialty of Orthodontics to dentists seeking postgraduate education. The courses range from two to three years of full-time classes and clinical work in the clinical and theoretical aspects of orthodontics. Generally, admission is based on an application process followed by an extensive interviewing process by the institution, in order to select the best candidate. Candidates usually have to contact the individual school directly for the application process. A list of orthodontic schools can be obtained from the American Association of Orthodontists[2].

See also

References

  1. T. M. Graber, R.L. Vanarsdall, Orthodontics, Current Principles and Techniques, "Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Orthodontics", D. M. Sarver, W.R. Proffit, J. L. Ackerman, Mosby, 2000

External links


Cleft lip and palate Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Pathophysiology

Causes

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Treatment

Surgery

Psychosocial Issues

Primary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Orthodontics On the Web

Most recent articles

cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Orthodontics

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Orthodontics

CDC on Orthodontics

Orthodontics in the news

Blogs on Orthodontics</small>

Directions to Hospitals Treating Cleft lip and palate

Risk calculators and risk factors for Orthodontics


az:Ortodontiya zh-min-nan:Khí-go̍k kiáu-chèng-ha̍k ca:Ortodòncia de:Kieferorthopädie el:Ορθοδοντικήfa:ارتودنسیit:Ortodonzia nl:Orthodontiefi:Ortodontia sv:Ortodonti


Linked-in.jpg