Pentane

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Pentane
IUPAC name pentane
Other names n-pentane
amyl hydride
Skellysolve
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
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RTECS number RZ9450000
Properties
C5H12
Molar mass 72.15 g/mol
Appearance Colourless liquid
Density 0.626 g/cm³, liquid
Melting point
Boiling point
Acidity (pKa) ~45
Viscosity 0.240 cP at 20 °C
Hazards
Main hazards Highly flammable (F+)
R/S statement R: R12, R51/53, R65,
R66, R67
S: (S2), S9, S16,
S29, S33, S61, S62
Flash point {{{value}}}
Related compounds
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Pentane, also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve A is an alkane hydrocarbon. It is a liquid commodity chemical compound, mainly used as fuel and as a solvent.

Molecular structure

The conformation (shape) of pentane is linear, similar to that of butane, but one carbon atom longer.

Isomers

Pentane is one of three structural isomers with the molecular formula C5H12, the others being isopentane and neopentane.

pentane isopentane neopentane
Pentane-2D-Skeletal.svg Isopentane-2D-skeletal.png Neopentane-2D-skeletal.png

A related cycloalkane is cyclopentane, although this is not an isomer of pentane as its molecular formula is different − cyclopentane is an isomer of the pentenes.

Search Pentane Structure

Uses

Being an unfunctionalized hydrocarbon, pentane is a commodity chemical. It is mainly a fuel and a solvent, although it also could be used as a source of H2 via steam reforming.

As the most volatile hydrocarbon that is liquid at room temperature, pentane is often used in the laboratory as a solvent that can be conveniently evaporated. Also because of its nonpolarity and lack of functionality, its dissolving power is poor, thus only non-polar or alkyl-rich compounds are soluble in it. Pentane is completely miscible, however, with many common solvents such as chlorocarbons, aromatics, ethers, but not short chain amines or short chain alcohols.

Reactions

Pentane burns to form carbon dioxide and water:

C5H12 + 8 O2 → 5 CO2 + 6 H2O

When oxygen is limited, carbon, partially oxidized carbon (soot), and carbon monoxide are also formed.

As for other hydrocarbons, pentane undergoes free radical chlorination:

C5H12 + Cl2 → C5H11Cl + HCl

Such reactions are unselective, yielding a mixture of the 1-, 2-, and 3-chloropentanes, as well as more highly chlorinated derivatives. Other radical halogenations can also occur.

Whereas n-butane is the conventional feedstock in duPont's synthesis maleic anhydride, pentane is also a substrate:

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 + 5 O2 → C2H2(CO)2O + 5 H2O + CO2

References

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External links

 

ar:بينتان de:Pentan el:Πεντάνιο eo:Pentano it:Pentano ku:Pentan la:Pentanum lv:Pentāns hu:Pentán nl:Pentaan sr:Пентан fi:Pentaani sv:Pentan


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