Martin Evans

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[[Image:File:Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg|300px| ]]
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Data 2: 1 January 1941 (1941-01-01) (age 73)
Stroud, Gloucestershire, England.
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Sir Martin John Evans FRS (born 1 January 1941) is a British scientist, credited with discovering how to culture embryonic stem cells in 1981, and for his work in the development of the knockout mouse and the related technology of gene targeting.[1][2] In 2007, he was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition of his gene targeting work.[3][4]

Early life

Evans was born in Stroud, Gloucestershire, England on 1 January 1941.[2] His mother was a teacher. His father maintained a mechanical workshop and taught Evans to use the tools and machines there, including a lathe. Evans was close to his grandfather who was a choir master at a Baptist Church for over 40 years, and whose main interests were music, poetry and the Baptist Church. His mother's brother was a professor of astronomy at the University of Cambridge. As a boy Evans was quiet, shy and inquisitive. He liked science and his parents encouraged his education. He was brought up in Orpington and he went to St Dunstan's College, an independent school for boys in South East London, where he worked hard studying for the University of Cambridge entrance exams. At school he was one of the best pupils, although not at the top of the class.[4]

Career

Evans was a student at Christ's College, University of Cambridge, at a time when there were many advances in genetics. He went to seminars by Sydney Brenner and attended lectures given by Jacques Monod.[4] He graduated from Christ's College, University of Cambridge in 1963,[2] although he did not take his final examinations because he was ill with glandular fever at that time.[1] He moved to University College London where he was awarded a PhD in 1969.[2][5] He became a lecturer in the Anatomy and Embryology department at University College London, where did research work, and taught PhD students and undergraduate students.[5] In 1978 he moved to the Department of Genetics, at the University of Cambridge, where his work in association with Matthew Kaufman began in 1980.[2] In October 1985 he visited the Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts for one month of bench work to learn new techniques.[1][6] In 1990s, he was a fellow at St Edmund's College, University of Cambridge. In 1999 he became Professor of Mammalian Genetics and Director of the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University,[2][7] where he worked until he retired at the end of 2007.[8]

Stem cell research

In 1981, Evans and Kaufman published results for experiments in which they isolated embryonic stem cells from mouse blastocysts and grew them in cell culture.[9] This was also achieved by Gail R. Martin, independently, in the same year.[10] The availability of these cultured stem cells eventually made possible the introduction of specific gene alterations into the germ line of mice and the creation of transgenic mice.

Evans and his collaborators showed that they could introduce a new gene into cultured embryonic stem cells and then use such genetically transformed cells to make chimeric embryos.[11] In some chimeric embryos, the genetically altered stem cells produced gametes, thus allowing transmission of the artificially induced mutation into future generations of mice.[12] Transgenic mice with induced mutations in the enzyme Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) were created.[13] The HPRT mutations were produced by retroviral insertion, but it was proposed that by taking advantage of genetic recombination between the normal HPRT gene and an artificial gene sequenced added to the cultured embryonic stem cells, "it may also eventually be possible to produce specific alterations in endogenous genes through homologous recombination with cloned copies modified in vitro". The production of transgenic mice using this proposed approach was accomplished in the laboratories of Oliver Smithies,[14] and also of Mario Capecchi.[15]

Awards and recognition

Personal life

When Evans was a student in Cambridge he met his wife, Judith, at a lunch held by his aunt, wife of an astronomy professor.[4] Later, after they were engaged, their relationship was not going well and Judith went to Canada; however, a year later she returned to England and they got married.[4] In 1978 they moved from London to Cambridge with young children, and they lived in Cambridge for more than 20 years before moving the Cardiff. They have one daughter and two sons.[19] Their older son was a student at the University of Cambridge and their younger son was a boarding pupil at the Christ Church Cathedral School in Oxford and sung in the Christ Church Cathedral choir.[4]

Judith Evans, granddaughter of Christopher Williams, was awarded an MBE for her services to practice nursing in 1993.[24] She was diagnosed with breast cancer at about the time the family moved to Cardiff. She works for breast cancer charities, and Martin Evans has become a trustee of Breakthrough Breast Cancer.[4]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Evans, Martin J. (October 2001). "The cultural mouse.". Nature Medicine 7 (10): 1081-1083. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Stem cell architect is knighted BBC News : Wednesday, 31 December, 2003
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 8 October 2007.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "Desert Island Discs with Martin Evans". Desert Island Discs. BBC. Radio 4. 2008-02-17.
  5. 5.0 5.1 20th Nobel Prize for UCL community. University College London (2007-10-08). Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
  6. Sir Martin J. Evans: Interview. The Nobel Foundation.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Staff list: Sir Martin Evans FRS, DSc. School of Biosciences, Cardiff University. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
  8. Chan, Xuefei (2007-12-07). Experiences of the Nobel Prize Laureates in Physiology or Medicine. People's Daily. Retrieved on 5 Apirl 2008.
  9. Evans M, Kaufman M (July 1981). "Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos.". Nature 292 (5819): 154-6. doi:10.1038/292154a0. PMID 7242681.
  10. Martin G (December 1981). "Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78 (12): 7634-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.12.7634. PMID 6950406.
  11. Bradley A, Evans M, Kaufman MH, Robertson E (1984). "Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines.". Nature 309 (5965): 255-256. doi:10.1038/309255a0. PMID 6717601.
  12. Robertson E, Bradley, A., Kuehn, M., Evans, M. (1986). "Germ-line transmission of genes introduced into cultured pluripotential cells by retroviral vector.". Nature 323 (6087): 445-448. doi:10.1038/323445a0. PMID 3762693.
  13. Kuehn MR, Bradley A, Robertson EJ, Evans MJ. (1987). "A potential animal model for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome through introduction of HPRT mutations into mice.". Nature 326 (5819): 295-298. doi:10.1038/326295a0. PMID 3029599.
  14. Doetschman T, Gregg, R.G., Maeda, N., Hooper, M.L., Melton, D.W., Thompson, S., Smithies, O. (1989). "Germ-line transmission of a planned alteration made in a hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86 (22): 8927-8931. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.22.8927. PMID 2573070.
  15. Thomas KR, Deng C, Capecchi MR. (1992). "High-fidelity gene targeting in embryonic stem cells by using sequence replacement vectors". Mol Cell Biol. 12 (7): 2919-2923. PMID 1620105.
  16. List of Fellows of the Royal Society: 1660–2007: A - J. The Royal Society. Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
  17. Directory listing. Academy of Medical Sciences. Retrieved on 9 October 2007.
  18. March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology: Previous Recipients. March of Dimes. Retrieved on 1 October 2007.
  19. 19.0 19.1 2001 Albert Lasker Award - Acceptance remarks by Martin Evans. Lasker Foundation. Retrieved on 10 May 2008.
  20. 2001 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. Lasker Foundation. Retrieved on 10 May 2008.
  21. Albert Lasker Award. Cardiff University. Retrieved on 10 May 2008.
  22. Biography: Professor Sir Martin Evans FRS. Cardiff University. Retrieved on 10 May 2008.
  23. Summer graduation ceremonies begin today at Bath Abbey. University of Bath (2005-07-19). Retrieved on 8 October 2007.
  24. Leader of the Stem Cell Revolution Wins Noble Prize. Medscape Today (2007-10-17). Retrieved on 2 November 2007.

External links


Persondata
NAME Evans, Martin
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Developmental biology, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007.
DATE OF BIRTH 1 January 1941
PLACE OF BIRTH Stroud, Gloucestershire, England
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
ar:مارتن إيفانز

ca:Martin Evans de:Martin Evansko:마틴 에번스 hi:मार्टिन जॉन एवन्स id:Martin Evans it:Martin Evans he:מרטין אוואנסno:Martin J. Evanssr:Мартин Еванс sh:Martin Evans fi:Martin Evans sv:Martin Evans


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