Marshall Warren Nirenberg
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Marshall Warren Nirenberg
|Data 2:|| April 10, 1927|
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Marshall Warren Nirenberg (born April 10, 1927) is a U.S. biochemist and geneticist. He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for describing the genetic code and how it operates in protein synthesis. In the same year, together with Har Gobind Khorana, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University.
By 1959, experiments by Oswald Avery, Francis Crick, James D. Watson, and others had shown DNA to be the molecule of genetic information. It was not known, however, how DNA was replicated, how DNA directed the expression of proteins, or what role RNA had in these processes. Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei at the National Institutes of Health to answer these questions. They produced RNA comprised solely of uracil, a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA. They then added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other cellular machinery for protein synthesis. They added DNase, which breaks apart the DNA, so that no additional proteins would be produced other than that from their synthetic RNA. They then added 1 radioactively labeled amino acid, the building blocks of proteins, and 19 unlabeled amino acids to the extract, varying the labeled amino acid in each sample. In the extract containing the radioactively labeled phenylalanine, the resulting protein was also radioactive. They realized that they had found the genetic code for phenylalanine: UUU (three uracil bases in a row) on RNA. This was the first step in deciphering the codons of the genetic code and the first demonstration of messenger RNA (see Nirenberg and Matthaei experiment).
Nirenberg received great scientific attention for these experiments. Within a few years, his research team had performed similar experiments and found that three-base repeats of adenosine (AAA) produced the amino acid lysine, cytosine repeats (CCC) produced proline and guanine repeats (GGG) produced nothing at all. The next breakthrough came when Phillip Leder, a postdoctoral researcher in Nirenberg's lab, developed a method for determining the genetic code on pieces of tRNA (see Nirenberg and Leder experiment). This greatly sped up the assignment of three-base codons to amino acids so that 50 codons were identified in this way. Khorana's experiments confirmed these results and completed the genetic code translation.
Nirenberg was born in New York City, the son of Harry and Minerva Nirenberg. He developed rheumatic fever as a boy, so the family moved to Orlando, Florida to take advantage of the subtropical climate. He developed an early interest in biology. In 1948 he received his B.S. degree, and in 1952, a master's degree in zoology from the University of Florida at Gainesville. His dissertation for the Master's thesis was an ecological and taxonomic study of caddis flies (Trichoptera). He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1957.
He began his postdoctoral work at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1957 as a fellow of the American Cancer Society. In 1960 became a research biochemist at the NIH. In 1959 he began to study the steps that relate DNA, RNA and protein. Nirenberg's groundbreaking experiments advanced him to become the head of the Section of Biochemical Genetics in 1962. He was married in 1961 to Perola Zaltzman, a chemist from the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro.
- ↑ LEDER, P & NIRENBERG, M W (1964), "RNA CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, 3. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF A CYSTEINE AND A LEUCINE RNA CODEWORD.", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 52: 1521-9, 1964 Dec, PMID:14243527, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14243527>
- ↑ EISERLING, F; LEVIN, J G & BYRNE, R et al. (1964), "POLYRIBOSOMES AND DNA-DEPENDENT AMINO ACID INCORPORATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI EXTRACTS.", J. Mol. Biol. 10: 536-40, 1964 Dec, PMID:14257696, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14257696>
- ↑ BLADEN, H A; BYRNE, R & LEVIN, J G et al. (1965), "AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF A DNA-RIBOSOME COMPLEX FORMED IN VITRO.", J. Mol. Biol. 11: 78-83, 1965 Jan, PMID:14255762, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14255762>
- ↑ BERNFIELD, M R & NIRENBERG, M W (1965), "RNA CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF MULTIPLE CODEWORDS FOR PHENYLALANINE, SERINE, LEUCINE, AND PROLINE.", Science 147: 479-84, 1965 Jan 29, PMID:14237203, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14237203>
- ↑ TRUPIN, J S; ROTTMAN, F M & BRIMACOMBE, R L et al. (1965), "RNA CODEWORDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, VI. ON THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES OF DEGENERATE CODEWORD SETS FOR ISOLEUCINE, TYROSINE, ASPARAGINE, AND LYSINE.", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 53: 807-11, 1965 Apr, PMID:14324538, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14324538>
- ↑ Jones, O W & Nirenberg, M W (1966), "Degeneracy in the amino acid code.", Biochim. Biophys. Acta 119 (2): 400-6, 1966 May 19, PMID:5335948, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5335948>
- ↑ Kellogg, D A; Doctor, B P & Loebel, J E et al. (1966), "RNA codons and protein synthesis. IX. Synonym codon recognition by multiple species of valine-, alanine-, and methionine-sRNA.", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 55 (4): 912-9, 1966 Apr, PMID:5327071, <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5327071>
- Voet, Donald and Judith G. Voet. 1995. Biochemistry 2nd ed. John Wilely & Sons, New York.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Profiles in Science: The Marshall W. Nirenberg Papers." 
- Nobel Biography
- NIH Profiles in Science
- Free to View Video Interview with Marshall W. Nirenberg provided by the Vega Science Trust.
- The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
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