Kernicterus

Jump to: navigation, search

For patient information, click here

Kernicterus
Bilirubin.png
Bilirubin
ICD-10 P57.
ICD-9 773.4, 774.7
DiseasesDB 7161
MedlinePlus 003243
MeSH D007647

WikiDoc Resources for Kernicterus

Articles

Most recent articles on Kernicterus

Most cited articles on Kernicterus

Review articles on Kernicterus

Articles on Kernicterus in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Kernicterus

Images of Kernicterus

Photos of Kernicterus

Podcasts & MP3s on Kernicterus

Videos on Kernicterus

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Kernicterus

Bandolier on Kernicterus

TRIP on Kernicterus

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Kernicterus at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Kernicterus

Clinical Trials on Kernicterus at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Kernicterus

NICE Guidance on Kernicterus

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Kernicterus

CDC on Kernicterus

Books

Books on Kernicterus

News

Kernicterus in the news

Be alerted to news on Kernicterus

News trends on Kernicterus

Commentary

Blogs on Kernicterus

Definitions

Definitions of Kernicterus

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Kernicterus

Discussion groups on Kernicterus

Patient Handouts on Kernicterus

Directions to Hospitals Treating Kernicterus

Risk calculators and risk factors for Kernicterus

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Kernicterus

Causes & Risk Factors for Kernicterus

Diagnostic studies for Kernicterus

Treatment of Kernicterus

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Kernicterus

International

Kernicterus en Espanol

Kernicterus en Francais

Business

Kernicterus in the Marketplace

Patents on Kernicterus

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Kernicterus

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Kernicterus is damage to the brain centers of infants caused by increased levels of unconjugated-indirect bilirubin which is free (not bound to albumin). This may be due to several underlying pathologic processes. Newborn babies are often polycythemic, meaning they have too many red blood cells. When they break down the cells, one of the byproducts is bilirubin, which circulates in the blood and causes jaundice. Alternately, Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus may cause hemolysis of fetal red blood cells, thereby releasing unconjugated bilirubin into the fetal blood. Since the fetal blood brain barrier is not fully formed, some of this released bilirubin enters the brain and interferes with normal neuronal development. Kernicterus may also be found in infants as a symptom of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, a hereditary hyperbilirubinemia that is fatal within 18 months of life.

In adults and older children, jaundice is harmless in and of itself. However, the tissues protecting the brain (the blood-brain barrier) are immature in newborns. Bilirubin penetrates the brain and is deposited in the basal ganglia, causing irreversible damage. Depending on the level of exposure, the effects range from unnoticeable to severe brain damage.

Some medications, such as the antibiotic co-trimoxazole (a combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) may induce this disorder in the baby, either when taken by the mother or given directly to the baby, due to displacement of bilirubin from binding sites on serum albumin. The bilirubin is then free to pass into the Central Nervous System, because the baby's blood-brain barrier is not fully developed.

The word origantes from the German kern, nucleus, kernel, and the Greek ikterus, jaundice.[1]

Causes

  • Drugs

References

  1. Anja M. Hafkamp (2006). "Oral treatment of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia" (PDF). PhD thesis. Department of Pediatrics; Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases; University Medical Center Groningen. pp. p. 21. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 

Linked-in.jpg